skip to main content

Title: Residual stress effects during additive manufacturing of reinforced thin nickel–chromium plates

Additive manufacturing (AM) is a powerful technique for producing metallic components with complex geometry relatively quickly, cheaply and directly from digital representations; however, residual stresses induced during manufacturing can result in distortions of components and reductions in mechanical performance, especially in parts that lack rotational symmetry and, or have cross sections with large aspect ratios. Geometrically reinforced thin plates have been built in nickel–chromium alloy using laser-powder bed fusion (L-PBF) and their shapes measured using stereoscopic digital image correlation before and after release from the base-plate of the AM machine. The results show that residual stresses cause potentially severe out-of-plane deformation that can be alleviated using either an enveloping support structure, which increased the build time substantially, was difficult to remove and wasted material, or using buttress supports to the reinforced edges of the thin plate. The buttresses were quick to build and remove, minimised waste but needed careful design. Plates built in a landscape orientation required out-of-plane buttresses while those built in a portrait orientation required both in-plane and out-of-plane buttresses. In both cases, out-of-plane deformation increased on release from the baseplate but this was mitigated by incremental release which resulted in out-of-plane deformations of less than 5% of the in-plane dimensions.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Springer Science + Business Media
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1845-1857
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Thin-ply composite laminates are of interest for several applications in aerospace and other high-performance industries due to their ability to delay transverse microcracking and delamination in static, fatigue, and impact loadings. It is essential to understand the evolution of thermal residual stresses during cure to optimize the manufacturing process of thin-ply composites for deep-space applications. In this research, processing induced residual stresses in thin-ply laminates are evaluated by devising a novel in-situ experimental approach. Thin-ply prepreg laminates are cured in a specially designed autoclave with viewports with plies laid upon a flat tool and a curved tool. The curved tool configuration used in this research is designed to simulate cryogenic fuel tank surfaces. The evolution of residual stresses in terms of out-of-plane displacement is characterized using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) during the autoclave cure cycle. 
    more » « less
  2. Thin (slender) steel plates possess shear strength beyond the elastic buckling load which is commonly referred to as the post-buckling capacity. Semi-empirical equations based on experimental tests of plate girders have been used for decades to predict the ultimate post-buckling strength of slender webs. However, several recent studies have shown that the current models for predicting the ultimate shear post-buckling capacity of thin plates are based on some incorrect assumptions regarding their mechanical behavior. As a result, the current design equations provide an approximate estimate of capacity for the range of parameters in the test data upon which they are founded. This paper explores the fundamental behavior of thin plates under pure shear. Such a fundamental examination of shear post-buckling behavior in thin plates is needed to enable design procedures that can optimize a plate’s shear strength and load-deformation performance for a wider range of loading and design parameters. Using finite element analyses, which are validated against available results of previous experimental tests, outputs such as plastic strains, von Mises stresses, principal stresses, and principal stress directions are examined on a buckled plate acting in pure shear. The internal bending, shear, and membrane stresses in the plate’s finite elements are also evaluated. In this study, these evaluations are performed for a simply-supported plate with an aspect ratio equal to 1.0 and slenderness ratio equal to 134. Results show that localized bending in the plates due to the out-of-plane post-buckling deformations appear to be a significant factor in the ultimate shear post-buckling capacity of the plate. Also, the compressive stresses continue to increase beyond the onset of elastic buckling in some regions of the plate, contrary to current design assumptions. Overall, this study provides new insights into the mechanics of shear post-buckling behavior of thin plates that can be exploited for design procedures that are consistent with mechanical behavior. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Although additive manufacturing (AM) has gained significant attention due to the advantages it offers and is currently a focus of much research, design of critical load carrying components utilizing such processes is still at its infancy. This is due to the fact that most of the load carrying components made by AM processes are subjected to cyclic loads, and fatigue behaviour of AM metals is far less understood as compared with those made by conventional methods, such as wrought and cast metals. To better understand the fatigue behaviour of AM metals, a wide range of issues that affect the behaviour in a synergistic manner must be considered. These include the effects of defects, residual stresses, surface finish, geometry and size, layer orientation, and heat treatment. Additionally, due to the multiaxial nature of the loading and/or complex geometries typically manufactured by AM processes, the stress state is often multiaxial including both normal and shear stresses. In this paper, the aforementioned effects influencing the fatigue resistance of AM parts, including torsion and multiaxial fatigue behaviour, are briefly discussed using some recently generated experimental data on Ti‐6Al‐4V by the authors.

    more » « less
  4. The goal of this work is to quantify the link between the design features (geometry), in-situ process sensor signatures, and build quality of parts made using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM) process. This knowledge is critical for establishing design rules for AM parts, and to detecting impending build failures using in-process sensor data. As a step towards this goal, the objectives of this work are two-fold: Quantify the effect of the geometry and orientation on the build quality of thin-wall features. To explain further, the geometry-related factor is the ratio of the length of a thin-wall (l) to its thickness (t) defined as the aspect ratio (length-to-thickness ratio, l/t), and the angular orientation (θ) of the part, which is defined as the angle of the part in the X-Y plane relative to the re-coater blade of the LPBF machine. Assess the thin-wall build quality by analyzing images of the part obtained at each layer from an in-situ optical camera using a convolutional neural network. To realize these objectives, we designed a test part with a set of thin-wall features (fins) with varying aspect ratio from Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) material — the aspect ratio l/t of the thin-walls ranges from 36 to 183 (11 mm long (constant), and 0.06 mm to 0.3 mm in thickness). These thin-wall test parts were built under three angular orientations of 0°, 60°, and 90°. Further, the parts were examined offline using X-ray computed tomography (XCT). Through the offline XCT data, the build quality of the thin-wall features in terms of their geometric integrity is quantified as a function of the aspect ratio and orientation angle, which suggests a set of design guidelines for building thin-wall structures with LPBF. To monitor the quality of the thin-wall, in-process images of the top surface of the powder bed were acquired at each layer during the build process. The optical images are correlated with the post build quantitative measurements of the thin-wall through a deep learning convolutional neural network (CNN). The statistical correlation (Pearson coefficient, ρ) between the offline XCT measured thin-wall quality, and CNN predicted measurement ranges from 80% to 98%. Consequently, the impending poor quality of a thin-wall is captured from in-situ process data. 
    more » « less
  5. This study investigates the application of electroless nickel deposition on additively manufactured stainless steel samples. Current additive manufacturing (AM) technologies produce metal components with a rough surface. Rough surfaces generally exhibit fatigue characteristics, increasing the probability of initiating a crack or fracture to the printed part. For this reason, the direct use of as-produced parts in a finished product cannot be actualized, which presents a challenge. Post-processing of the AM parts is therefore required to smoothen the surface. This study analyzes chempolish (CP) and electropolish (EP) surface finishing techniques for post-processing AM stainless steel components CP has a great advantage in creating uniform, smooth surfaces regardless of size or part geometry EP creates an extremely smooth surface, which reduces the surface roughness to the sub-micrometer level.

    In this study, we also investigate nickel deposition on EP, CP, and as-built AM components using electroless nickel solutions. Electroless nickel plating is a method of alloy treatment designed to increase manufactured component’s hardness and surface resistance to the unrelenting environment. The electroless nickel plating process is more straightforward than its counterpart electroplating. We use low-phosphorus (2–5% P), medium-phosphorus (6–9% P), and high-phosphorus (10–13% P). These Ni deposition experiments were optimized using the L9 Taguchi design of experiments (TDOE), which compromises the prosperous content in the solution, surface finish, plane of the geometry, and bath temperature. The pre- and post-processed surface of the AM parts was characterized by KEYENCE Digital MicroscopeVHX-7000 and Phenom XL Desktop SEM. The experimental results show that electroless nickel deposition produces uniform Ni coating on the additively manufactured components up to 20 μm per hour. Mechanical properties of as-built and Ni coated AM samples were analyzed by applying a standard 10 N scratch test. Nickel coated AM samples were up to two times scratch resistant compared to the as-built samples. This study suggests electroless nickel plating is a robust viable option for surface hardening and finishing AM components for various applications and operating conditions. 

    more » « less