skip to main content


Title: Non-Hermitian planar elastic metasurface for unidirectional focusing of flexural waves
Metasurfaces exhibiting spatially asymmetric inner structures have been shown to host unidirectional scattering effects, benefiting areas where directional control of waves is desired. In this work, we propose a non-Hermitian planar elastic metasurface to achieve unidirectional focusing of flexural waves. The unit cells are constructed by piezoelectric disks and metallic blocks that are asymmetrically loaded. A tunable material loss is then introduced by negative capacitance shunting. By suitably engineering the induced loss profile, a series of unit cells are designed, which can individually access the exceptional points manifested by unidirectional zero reflection. We then construct a planar metasurface by tuning the reflected phase to ensure constructive interference at one side of the metasurface. Unidirectional focusing of the incident waves is demonstrated, where the reflected wave energy is focused from one direction, and zero reflection is observed in the other direction. The proposed metasurface enriches the flexibility in asymmetric elastic wave manipulation as the loss and the reflected phase can be tailored independently in each unit cell.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2137749
NSF-PAR ID:
10378388
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Applied Physics Letters
Volume:
120
Issue:
24
ISSN:
0003-6951
Page Range / eLocation ID:
241701
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. While elastic metasurfaces offer a remarkable and very effective approach to the subwavelength control of stress waves, their use in practical applications is severely hindered by intrinsically narrow band performance. In applications to electromagnetic and photonic metamaterials, some success in extending the operating dynamic range was obtained by using nonlocality. However, while electronic properties in natural materials can show significant nonlocal effects, even at the macroscales, in mechanics, nonlocality is a higher-order effect that becomes appreciable only at the microscales. This study introduces the concept of intentional nonlocality as a fundamental mechanism to design passive elastic metasurfaces capable of an exceptionally broadband operating range. The nonlocal behavior is achieved by exploiting nonlocal forces, conceptually akin to long-range interactions in nonlocal material microstructures, between subsets of resonant unit cells forming the metasurface. These long-range forces are obtained via carefully crafted flexible elements, whose specific geometry and local dynamics are designed to create remarkably complex transfer functions between multiple units. The resulting nonlocal coupling forces enable achieving phase-gradient profiles that are functions of the wavenumber of the incident wave. The identification of relevant design parameters and the assessment of their impact on performance are explored via a combination of semianalytical and numerical models. The nonlocal metasurface concept is tested, both numerically and experimentally, by embedding a total-internal-reflection design in a thin-plate waveguide. Results confirm the feasibility of the intentionally nonlocal design concept and its ability to achieve a fully passive and broadband wave control.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    In this paper, we design a tunable phase-modulated metasurface composed of periodically distributed piezoelectric patches with resonant-type shunt circuits. The electroelastic metasurface can control the wavefront of the lowest antisymmetric mode Lamb wave (A0mode) in a small footprint due to its subwavelength features. The fully coupled electromechanical model is established to study the transmission characteristics of the metasurface unit and validated through numerical and experimental studies. Based on the analysis of the metasurface unit, we first explore the performance of electroelastic metasurface with single-resonant shunts and then extend its capability with multi-resonant shunts. By only tuning the electric loads in the shunt circuits, we utilize the proposed metasurface to accomplish wave deflection and wave focusing ofA0mode Lamb waves at different angles and focal points, respectively. Numerical simulations show that the metasurface with single-resonant shunts can deflect the wavefront of 5 kHz and 6 kHz flexural waves by desired angles with less than2%deviation. In addition, it can be tuned to achieve nearly three times displacement amplification at the designed focal point for a wide range of angles from75to 75. Furthermore, with multi-resonant shunts, the piezoelectric-based metasurface can accomplish anomalous wave control over flexural waves at multiple frequencies (i.e. simultaneously at 5 kHz and 10 kHz), developing new potentials toward a broad range of engineering applications such as demultiplexing various frequency components or guiding and focusing them at different positions.

     
    more » « less
  3. We propose a nonlinear acoustic metasurface concept by exploiting the nonlinearity of locally resonant unit cells formed by curved beams. The analytical model is established to explore the nonlinear phenomenon, specifically the second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the nonlinear unit cell, and validated through numerical and experimental studies. By tailoring the phase gradient of the unit cells, nonlinear acoustic metasurfaces are developed to demultiplex different frequency components and achieve anomalous wavefront control of SHG in the transmitted region. To this end, we numerically demonstrate wave steering, wave focusing, and self-bending propagation. Our results show that the proposed nonlinear metasurface provides an effective and efficient platform to achieve significant SHG and separate different harmonic components for wavefront control of individual harmonics. Overall, this study offers an outlook to harness nonlinear effects for acoustic wavefront tailoring and develops potential toward advanced technologies to manipulate acoustic waves.

     
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Metasurfaces open up unprecedented potential for wave engineering using subwavelength sheets. However, a severe limitation of current acoustic metasurfaces is their poor reconfigurability to achieve distinct functions on demand. Here a programmable acoustic metasurface that contains an array of tunable subwavelength unit cells to break the limitation and realize versatile two‐dimensional wave manipulation functions is reported. Each unit cell of the metasurface is composed of a straight channel and five shunted Helmholtz resonators, whose effective mass can be tuned by a robust fluidic system. The phase and amplitude of acoustic waves transmitting through each unit cell can be modulated dynamically and continuously. Based on such mechanism, the metasurface is able to achieve versatile wave manipulation functions, by engineering the phase and amplitude of transmission waves in the subwavelength scale. Through acoustic field scanning experiments, multiple wave manipulation functions, including steering acoustic waves, engineering acoustic beams, and switching on/off acoustic energy flow by using one design of metasurface are visually demonstrated. This work extends the metasurface research and holds great potential for a wide range of applications including acoustic imaging, communication, levitation, and tweezers.

     
    more » « less
  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Controlling and manipulating elastic/acoustic waves via artificially structured metamaterials, phononic crystals, and metasurfaces have gained an increasing research interest in the last decades. Unlike others, a metasurface is a single layer in the host medium with an array of subwavelength-scaled patterns introducing an abrupt phase shift in the wave propagation path. In this study, an elastic metasurface composed of an array of slender beam resonators is proposed to control the elastic wavefront of low-frequency flexural waves. The phase gradient based on Snell’s law is achieved by tailoring the thickness of thin beam resonators connecting two elastic host media. Through analytical and numerical models, the phase-modulated metasurfaces are designed and verified to accomplish three dynamic wave functions, namely, deflection, non-paraxial propagation, and focusing. An oblique incident wave is also demonstrated to show the versatility of the proposed design for focusing of wave energy incident from multiple directions. Experimentally measured focusing metasurface has nearly three times wave amplification at the designed focal point which validates the design and theoretical models. Furthermore, the focusing metasurface is exploited for low-frequency energy harvesting and the piezoelectric harvester is improved by almost nine times in terms of the harvested power output as compared to the baseline harvester on the pure plate without metasurface. 
    more » « less