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- Award ID(s):
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- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- Plant and Soil
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 689 to 707
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Phosphorus deprivation affects composition and spatial distribution of membrane lipids in legume nodules.In legumes, symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation (SNF) occurs in specialized organs called nodules after successful interactions between legume hosts and rhizobia. In a nodule, N-fixing rhizobia are surrounded by symbiosome membranes, through which the exchange of nutrients and ammonium occurs between bacteria and the host legume. Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and N2-fixing legumes have a higher requirement for P than legumes grown on mineral N. As in the previous studies, in P deficiency, barrel medic (Medicago truncatula) plants had impaired SNF activity, reduced growth, and accumulated less phosphate in leaves, roots, and nodules compared with the plants grown in P sufficient conditions. Membrane lipids in M. truncatula tissues were assessed using electrospray ionization–mass spectrometry. Galactolipids were found to increase in P deficiency, with declines in phospholipids (PL), especially in leaves. Lower PL losses were found in roots and nodules. Subsequently, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization–mass spectrometry imaging was used to spatially map the distribution of the positively charged phosphatidylcholine (PC) species in nodules in both P-replete and P-deficient conditions. Our results reveal heterogeneous distribution of several PC species in nodules, with homogeneous distribution of other PC classes. In P poor conditions, some PC species distributions were observed to change. Themore »
Phosphorus availability and leaching losses in annual and perennial cropping systems in an upper US Midwest landscape
AbstractExcessive phosphorus (P) applications to croplands can contribute to eutrophication of surface waters through surface runoff and subsurface (leaching) losses. We analyzed leaching losses of total dissolved P (TDP) from no-till corn, hybrid poplar (Populus nigra X P. maximowiczii), switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), miscanthus (Miscanthus giganteus), native grasses, and restored prairie, all planted in 2008 on former cropland in Michigan, USA. All crops except corn (13 kg P ha−1 year−1) were grown without P fertilization. Biomass was harvested at the end of each growing season except for poplar. Soil water at 1.2 m depth was sampled weekly to biweekly for TDP determination during March–November 2009–2016 using tension lysimeters. Soil test P (0–25 cm depth) was measured every autumn. Soil water TDP concentrations were usually below levels where eutrophication of surface waters is frequently observed (> 0.02 mg L−1) but often higher than in deep groundwater or nearby streams and lakes. Rates of P leaching, estimated from measured concentrations and modeled drainage, did not differ statistically among cropping systems across years; 7-year cropping system means ranged from 0.035 to 0.072 kg P ha−1 year−1 with large interannual variation. Leached P was positively related to STP, which decreased over the 7 years in all systems. These results indicate that both P-fertilized and unfertilized cropping systems may
Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment is driving global biodiversity decline and modifying ecosystem functions. Theory suggests that plant functional types that fix atmospheric nitrogen have a competitive advantage in nitrogen-poor soils, but lose this advantage with increasing nitrogen supply. By contrast, the addition of phosphorus, potassium, and other nutrients may benefit such species in low-nutrient environments by enhancing their nitrogen-fixing capacity. We present a global-scale experiment confirming these predictions for nitrogen-fixing legumes (Fabaceae) across 45 grasslands on six continents. Nitrogen addition reduced legume cover, richness, and biomass, particularly in nitrogen-poor soils, while cover of non–nitrogen-fixing plants increased. The addition of phosphorous, potassium, and other nutrients enhanced legume abundance, but did not mitigate the negative effects of nitrogen addition. Increasing nitrogen supply thus has the potential to decrease the diversity and abundance of grassland legumes worldwide regardless of the availability of other nutrients, with consequences for biodiversity, food webs, ecosystem resilience, and genetic improvement of protein-rich agricultural plant species.
Grasslands worldwide are expected to experience an increase in extreme events such as drought, along with simultaneous increases in mineral nutrient inputs as a result of human industrial activities. These changes are likely to interact because elevated nutrient inputs may alter plant diversity and increase the sensitivity to droughts. Dividing a system’s sensitivity to drought into resistance to change during the drought and rate of recovery after the drought generates insights into different dimensions of the system’s resilience in the face of drought. Here, we examine the effects of experimental nutrient fertilization and the resulting diversity loss on the resistance to and recovery from severe regional droughts. We do this at 13 North American sites spanning gradients of aridity, five annual grasslands in California, and eight perennial grasslands in the Great Plains. We measured rate of resistance as the change in annual aboveground biomass (ANPP) per unit change in growing season precipitation as conditions declined from normal to drought. We measured recovery as the change in ANPP during the postdrought period and the return to normal precipitation. Resistance and recovery did not vary across the 400‐mm range of mean growing season precipitation spanned by our sites in the Greatmore »
Species origin affects the rate of response to inter‐annual growing season precipitation and nutrient addition in four Australian native grasslands
Predicted increases in temperature and changes to precipitation are expected to alter the amount of plant available nutrients, in turn, altering rates of primary production and exotic plant invasions. However, it remains unclear whether increased responses occur in wetter than average years, even in low fertility and low rainfall regions.
Four Australian grasslands, including sites in arid Western Australia, semi‐arid Victoria, alpine Victoria and sub‐tropical Queensland.
Using identical nutrient addition experiments, we use 6‐years of biomass, cover and species richness data to examine how rates of biomass production and native and exotic cover and richness are affected by growing season precipitation [proportion of yearly growing season precipitation (
GSP) to long‐term mean GSP] and nutrient (N, P, K and micronutrients) addition. Results
Rates of grassland productivity strongly increased with increasing
GSP. GSPincreased rates of native cover but not native or exotic richness, nor rates of exotic cover change. We detected no significant NPKeffect on rates of grassland productivity, exotic cover or exotic richness change. In contrast, NPKaddition decreased rates of native cover change and fertilized plots had significantly fewer native species. We did not detect a significant interaction between NPKand GSP. Conclusions
Grassland productivity was more strongly predicted by variation inmore »