skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on August 14, 2023

Title: JuryGCN: Quantifying Jackknife Uncertainty on Graph Convolutional Networks
Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) has exhibited strong empirical performance in many real-world applications. The vast majority of existing works on GCN primarily focus on the accuracy while ignoring how confident or uncertain a GCN is with respect to its predictions. Despite being a cornerstone of trustworthy graph mining, uncertainty quantification on GCN has not been well studied and the scarce existing efforts either fail to provide deterministic quantification or have to change the training procedure of GCN by introducing additional parameters or architectures. In this paper, we propose the first frequentist-based approach named JuryGCN in quantifying the uncertainty of GCN, where the key idea is to quantify the uncertainty of a node as the width of confidence interval by a jackknife estimator. Moreover, we leverage the influence functions to estimate the change in GCN parameters without re-training to scale up the computation. The proposed JuryGCN is capable of quantifying uncertainty deterministically without modifying the GCN architecture or introducing additional parameters. We perform extensive experimental evaluation on real-world datasets in the tasks of both active learning and semi-supervised node classification, which demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed method.
; ;
Award ID(s):
2134079 1939725 1947135
Publication Date:
Journal Name:
Page Range or eLocation-ID:
742 to 752
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) plays pivotal roles in many real-world applications. Despite the successes of GCN deployment, GCN often exhibits performance disparity with respect to node de- grees, resulting in worse predictive accuracy for low-degree nodes. We formulate the problem of mitigating the degree-related per- formance disparity in GCN from the perspective of the Rawlsian difference principle, which is originated from the theory of distribu- tive justice. Mathematically, we aim to balance the utility between low-degree nodes and high-degree nodes while minimizing the task- specific loss. Specifically, we reveal the root cause of this degree- related unfairness by analyzing the gradients of weight matrices in GCN. Guided by the gradients of weight matrices, we further propose a pre-processing method RawlsGCN-Graph and an in- processing method RawlsGCN-Grad that achieves fair predictive accuracy in low-degree nodes without modification on the GCN architecture or introduction of additional parameters. Extensive experiments on real-world graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RawlsGCN methods in significantly reducing degree- related bias while retaining comparable overall performance.
  2. In traditional graph learning tasks, such as node classification, learning is carried out in a closed-world setting where the number of classes and their training samples are provided to help train models, and the learning goal is to correctly classify unlabeled nodes into classes already known. In reality, due to limited labeling capability and dynamic evolving of networks, some nodes in the networks may not belong to any existing/seen classes, and therefore cannot be correctly classified by closed-world learning algorithms. In this paper, we propose a new open-world graph learning paradigm, where the learning goal is to not only classify nodes belonging to seen classes into correct groups, but also classify nodes not belonging to existing classes to an unseen class. The essential challenge of the openworld graph learning is that (1) unseen class has no labeled samples, and may exist in an arbitrary form different from existing seen classes; and (2) both graph feature learning and prediction should differentiate whether a node may belong to an existing/seen class or an unseen class. To tackle the challenges, we propose an uncertain node representation learning approach, using constrained variational graph autoencoder networks, where the label loss and class uncertainty loss constraintsmore »are used to ensure that the node representation learning are sensitive to unseen class. As a result, node embedding features are denoted by distributions, instead of deterministic feature vectors. By using a sampling process to generate multiple versions of feature vectors, we are able to test the certainty of a node belonging to seen classes, and automatically determine a threshold to reject nodes not belonging to seen classes as unseen class nodes. Experiments on real-world networks demonstrate the algorithm performance, comparing to baselines. Case studies and ablation analysis also show the rationale of our design for open-world graph learning.« less
  3. Graph representation learning is crucial for many real-world ap- plications (e.g. social relation analysis). A fundamental problem for graph representation learning is how to effectively learn rep- resentations without human labeling, which is usually costly and time-consuming. Graph contrastive learning (GCL) addresses this problem by pulling the positive node pairs (or similar nodes) closer while pushing the negative node pairs (or dissimilar nodes) apart in the representation space. Despite the success of the existing GCL methods, they primarily sample node pairs based on the node- level proximity yet the community structures have rarely been taken into consideration. As a result, two nodes from the same community might be sampled as a negative pair. We argue that the community information should be considered to identify node pairs in the same communities, where the nodes insides are seman- tically similar. To address this issue, we propose a novel Graph Communal Contrastive Learning (π‘”πΆπ‘œπ‘œπΏ) framework to jointly learn the community partition and learn node representations in an end-to-end fashion. Specifically, the proposed π‘”πΆπ‘œπ‘œπΏ consists of two components: a Dense Community Aggregation (𝐷𝑒𝐢𝐴) algo- rithm for community detection and a Reweighted Self-supervised Cross-contrastive (𝑅𝑒𝑆𝐢) training scheme to utilize the community information. Additionally, the real-worldmore »graphs are complex and often consist of multiple views. In this paper, we demonstrate that the proposed π‘”πΆπ‘œπ‘œπΏ can also be naturally adapted to multiplex graphs. Finally, we comprehensively evaluate the proposed π‘”πΆπ‘œπ‘œπΏ on a variety of real-world graphs. The experimental results show that the π‘”πΆπ‘œπ‘œπΏ outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.« less
  4. Networked data often demonstrate the Pareto principle (i.e., 80/20 rule) with skewed class distributions, where most vertices belong to a few majority classes and minority classes only contain a handful of instances. When presented with imbalanced class distributions, existing graph embedding learning tends to bias to nodes from majority classes, leaving nodes from minority classes under-trained. In this paper, we propose Dual-Regularized Graph Convolutional Networks (DR-GCN) to handle multi-class imbalanced graphs, where two types of regularization are imposed to tackle class imbalanced representation learning. To ensure that all classes are equally represented, we propose a class-conditioned adversarial training process to facilitate the separation of labeled nodes. Meanwhile, to maintain training equilibrium (i.e., retaining quality of fit across all classes), we force unlabeled nodes to follow a similar latent distribution to the labeled nodes by minimizing their difference in the embedding space. Experiments on real-world imbalanced graphs demonstrate that DR-GCN outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in node classification, graph clustering, and visualization.

  5. Learning the low-dimensional representations of graphs (i.e., network embedding) plays a critical role in network analysis and facilitates many downstream tasks. Recently graph convolutional networks (GCNs) have revolutionized the field of network embedding, and led to state-of-the-art performance in network analysis tasks such as link prediction and node classification. Nevertheless, most of the existing GCN-based network embedding methods are proposed for unsigned networks. However, in the real world, some of the networks are signed, where the links are annotated with different polarities, e.g., positive vs. negative. Since negative links may have different properties from the positive ones and can also significantly affect the quality of network embedding. Thus in this paper, we propose a novel network embedding framework SNEA to learn Signed Network Embedding via graph Attention. In particular, we propose a masked self-attentional layer, which leverages self-attention mechanism to estimate the importance coefficient for pair of nodes connected by different type of links during the embedding aggregation process. Then SNEA utilizes the masked self-attentional layers to aggregate more important information from neighboring nodes to generate the node embeddings based on balance theory. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework through signed link prediction task on several real-worldmore »signed network datasets.« less