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  1. With increased globalization and labor mobility, human resource reallocation across firms, industries and regions has become the new norm in labor markets. The emergence of massive digital traces of such mobility offers a unique opportunity to understand labor mobility at an unprecedented scale and granularity. While most studies on labor mobility have largely focused on characterizing macro-level (e.g., region or company) or micro-level (e.g., employee) patterns, the problem of how to accurately predict an employee's next career move (which company with what job title) receives little attention. This paper presents the first study of large-scale experiments for predicting next careermore »moves. We focus on two sources of predictive signals: profile context matching and career path mining and propose a contextual LSTM model, NEMO, to simultaneously capture signals from both sources by jointly learning latent representations for different types of entities (e.g., employees, skills, companies) that appear in different sources. In particular, NEMO generates the contextual representation by aggregating all the profile information and explores the dependencies in the career paths through the Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks. Extensive experiments on a large, real-world LinkedIn dataset show that NEMO significantly outperforms strong baselines and also reveal interesting insights in micro-level labor mobility.« less
  2. Social recommendation has achieved great success in many domains including e-commerce and location-based social networks. Existing methods usually explore the user-item interactions or user-user connections to predict users’ preference behaviors. However, they usually learn both user and item representations in Euclidean space, which has large limitations for exploring the latent hierarchical property in the data. In this article, we study a novel problem of hyperbolic social recommendation, where we aim to learn the compact but strong representations for both users and items. Meanwhile, this work also addresses two critical domain-issues, which are under-explored. First, users often make trade-offs with multiplemore »underlying aspect factors to make decisions during their interactions with items. Second, users generally build connections with others in terms of different aspects, which produces different influences with aspects in social network. To this end, we propose a novel graph neural network (GNN) framework with multiple aspect learning, namely, HyperSoRec. Specifically, we first embed all users, items, and aspects into hyperbolic space with superior representations to ensure their hierarchical properties. Then, we adapt a GNN with novel multi-aspect message-passing-receiving mechanism to capture different influences among users. Next, to characterize the multi-aspect interactions of users on items, we propose an adaptive hyperbolic metric learning method by introducing learnable interactive relations among different aspects. Finally, we utilize the hyperbolic translational distance to measure the plausibility in each user-item pair for recommendation. Experimental results on two public datasets clearly demonstrate that our HyperSoRec not only achieves significant improvement for recommendation performance but also shows better representation ability in hyperbolic space with strong robustness and reliability.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2023
  3. The past decades have witnessed the prosperity of graph mining, with a multitude of sophisticated models and algorithms designed for various mining tasks, such as ranking, classification, clustering and anomaly detection. Generally speaking, the vast majority of the existing works aim to answer the following question, that is, given a graph, what is the best way to mine it? In this paper, we introduce the graph sanitation problem, to an- swer an orthogonal question. That is, given a mining task and an initial graph, what is the best way to improve the initially provided graph? By learning a better graphmore »as part of the input of the mining model, it is expected to benefit graph mining in a variety of settings, ranging from denoising, imputation to defense. We formulate the graph sanitation problem as a bilevel optimization problem, and fur- ther instantiate it by semi-supervised node classification, together with an effective solver named GaSoliNe. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is (1) broadly appli- cable with respect to various graph neural network models and flexible graph modification strategies, (2) effective in improving the node classification accuracy on both the original and contaminated graphs in various perturbation scenarios. In particular, it brings up to 25% performance improvement over the existing robust graph neural network methods.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  4. Contrastive learning is an effective unsupervised method in graph representation learning. Recently, the data augmentation based con- trastive learning method has been extended from images to graphs. However, most prior works are directly adapted from the models designed for images. Unlike the data augmentation on images, the data augmentation on graphs is far less intuitive and much harder to provide high-quality contrastive samples, which are the key to the performance of contrastive learning models. This leaves much space for improvement over the existing graph contrastive learning frameworks. In this work, by introducing an adversarial graph view and an information regularizer,more »we propose a simple but effective method, Adversarial Graph Contrastive Learning (ArieL), to extract informative contrastive samples within a reasonable constraint. It consistently outperforms the current graph contrastive learning methods in the node classification task over various real-world datasets and further improves the robustness of graph contrastive learning.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  5. Graph representation learning is crucial for many real-world ap- plications (e.g. social relation analysis). A fundamental problem for graph representation learning is how to effectively learn rep- resentations without human labeling, which is usually costly and time-consuming. Graph contrastive learning (GCL) addresses this problem by pulling the positive node pairs (or similar nodes) closer while pushing the negative node pairs (or dissimilar nodes) apart in the representation space. Despite the success of the existing GCL methods, they primarily sample node pairs based on the node- level proximity yet the community structures have rarely been taken into consideration. As a result,more »two nodes from the same community might be sampled as a negative pair. We argue that the community information should be considered to identify node pairs in the same communities, where the nodes insides are seman- tically similar. To address this issue, we propose a novel Graph Communal Contrastive Learning (𝑔𝐶𝑜𝑜𝐿) framework to jointly learn the community partition and learn node representations in an end-to-end fashion. Specifically, the proposed 𝑔𝐶𝑜𝑜𝐿 consists of two components: a Dense Community Aggregation (𝐷𝑒𝐶𝐴) algo- rithm for community detection and a Reweighted Self-supervised Cross-contrastive (𝑅𝑒𝑆𝐶) training scheme to utilize the community information. Additionally, the real-world graphs are complex and often consist of multiple views. In this paper, we demonstrate that the proposed 𝑔𝐶𝑜𝑜𝐿 can also be naturally adapted to multiplex graphs. Finally, we comprehensively evaluate the proposed 𝑔𝐶𝑜𝑜𝐿 on a variety of real-world graphs. The experimental results show that the 𝑔𝐶𝑜𝑜𝐿 outperforms the state-of-the-art methods.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  6. Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) plays pivotal roles in many real-world applications. Despite the successes of GCN deployment, GCN often exhibits performance disparity with respect to node de- grees, resulting in worse predictive accuracy for low-degree nodes. We formulate the problem of mitigating the degree-related per- formance disparity in GCN from the perspective of the Rawlsian difference principle, which is originated from the theory of distribu- tive justice. Mathematically, we aim to balance the utility between low-degree nodes and high-degree nodes while minimizing the task- specific loss. Specifically, we reveal the root cause of this degree- related unfairness by analyzing themore »gradients of weight matrices in GCN. Guided by the gradients of weight matrices, we further propose a pre-processing method RawlsGCN-Graph and an in- processing method RawlsGCN-Grad that achieves fair predictive accuracy in low-degree nodes without modification on the GCN architecture or introduction of additional parameters. Extensive experiments on real-world graphs demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed RawlsGCN methods in significantly reducing degree- related bias while retaining comparable overall performance.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 25, 2023
  7. Co-evolving sequences are ubiquitous in a variety of applications, where different sequences are often inherently inter-connected with each other. We refer to such sequences, together with their inherent connections modeled as a structured network, as network of co-evolving sequences (NoCES). Typical NoCES applications in- clude road traffic monitoring, company revenue prediction, motion capture, etc. To date, it remains a daunting challenge to accurately model NoCES due to the coupling between network structure and sequences. In this paper, we propose to modeling NoCES with the aim of simultaneously capturing both the dynamics and the inter- play between network structure and sequences.more »Specifically, we propose a joint learning framework to alternatively update the network representations and sequence representations as the se- quences evolve over time. A unique feature of our framework lies in that it can deal with the case when there are co-evolving sequences on both network nodes and edges. Experimental evaluations on four real datasets demonstrate that the proposed approach (1) out- performs the existing competitors in terms of prediction accuracy, and (2) scales linearly w.r.t. the sequence length and the network size.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  8. Graph neural networks (GNNs) have achieved tremendous success in many graph learning tasks such as node classifica- tion, graph classification and link prediction. For the classifi- cation task, GNNs’ performance often highly depends on the number of labeled nodes and thus could be significantly ham- pered due to the expensive annotation cost. The sparse litera- ture on active learning for GNNs has primarily focused on se- lecting only one sample each iteration, which becomes ineffi- cient for large scale datasets. In this paper, we study the batch active learning setting for GNNs where the learning agent can acquire labels ofmore »multiple samples at each time. We formu- late batch active learning as a cooperative multi-agent rein- forcement learning problem and present a novel reinforced batch-mode active learning framework (BIGENE). To avoid the combinatorial explosion of the joint action space, we in- troduce a value decomposition method that factorizes the to- tal Q-value into the average of individual Q-values. More- over, we propose a novel multi-agent Q-network consisting of a graph convolutional network (GCN) component and a gated recurrent unit (GRU) component. The GCN compo- nent takes both the informativeness and inter-dependences between nodes into account and the GRU component enables the agent to consider interactions between selected nodes in the same batch. Experimental results on multiple public datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  9. Subteam Replacement: given a team of people em- bedded in a social network to complete a certain task, and a subset of members (i.e., subteam) in this team which have become unavailable, find another set of people who can perform the subteam’s role in the larger team. We conjecture that a good candidate subteam should have high skill and structural similarity with the replaced subteam while sharing a similar connection with the larger team as a whole. Based on this conjecture, we propose a novel graph kernel which evaluates the goodness of candidate subteams in this holistic way freely adjustablemore »to the need of the situation. To tackle the significant computational difficulties, we equip our kernel with a fast approximation algorithm which (a) employs effective pruning strategies, (b) exploits the similarity between candidate team structures to reduce kernel computations, and (c) features a solid theoretical bound on the quality of the obtained solution. We extensively test our solution on both synthetic and real datasets to demonstrate its effectiveness and efficiency. Our proposed graph kernel outputs more human-agreeable recommendations compared to metrics used in previous work, and our algorithm consistently outperforms alternative choices by finding near- optimal solutions while scaling linearly with the size of the replaced subteam.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2022
  10. Dense subgraph detection is a fundamental building block for a va- riety of applications. Most of the existing methods aim to discover dense subgraphs within either a single network or a multi-view network while ignoring the informative node dependencies across multiple layers of networks in a complex system. To date, it largely remains a daunting task to detect dense subgraphs on multi-layered networks. In this paper, we formulate the problem of dense sub- graph detection on multi-layered networks based on cross-layer consistency principle. We further propose a novel algorithm Des- tine based on projected gradient descent with the following ad-more »vantages. First, armed with the cross-layer dependencies, Destine is able to detect significantly more accurate and meaningful dense subgraphs at each layer. Second, it scales linearly w.r.t. the num- ber of links in the multi-layered network. Extensive experiments demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed Destine algorithm in various cases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 26, 2022