skip to main content

Title: Temperature variability interacts with mean temperature to influence the predictability of microbial phenotypes
Award ID(s):
1638804 1851222
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Global Change Biology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
5741 to 5754
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    The nonnormality of temperature probability distributions and the physics that drive it are important due to their relationships to the frequency of extreme warm and cold events. Here we use a conditional mean framework to explore how horizontal temperature advection and other physical processes work together to control the shape of daily temperature distributions during 1979–2019 in the ERA5 dataset for both JJA and DJF. We demonstrate that the temperature distribution in the middle and high latitudes can largely be linearly explained by the conditional mean horizontal temperature advection with the simple treatment of other processes as a Newtonian relaxation with a spatially variant relaxation time scale and equilibrium temperature. We analyze the role of different transient and stationary components of the horizontal temperature advection in affecting the shape of temperature distributions. The anomalous advection of the stationary temperature gradient has a dominant effect in influencing temperature variance, while both that term and the covariance between anomalous wind and anomalous temperature have significant effects on temperature skewness. While this simple method works well over most of the ocean, the advection–temperature relationship is more complicated over land. We classify land regions with different advection–temperature relationships under our framework, and find that for both seasons the aforementioned linear relationship can explain ∼30% of land area, and can explain either the lower or the upper half of temperature distributions in an additional ∼30% of land area. Identifying the regions where temperature advection explains shapes of temperature distributions well will help us gain more confidence in understanding the future change of temperature distributions and extreme events.

    more » « less
  2. The surrounding thermal environment is highly important for the survival and fitness of animals, and as a result most exhibit behavioral and neural responses to temperature changes. We study signals generated by thermosensory neurons inDrosophilalarvae and also the physical and sensory effects of temperature variation on locomotion and navigation. In particular we characterize how sensory neuronal and behavioral responses to temperature variation both change across the development of the larva. Looking at a wide range of non-nociceptive isotropic thermal environments, we characterize the dependence of speed, turning rate, and other behavioral components on temperature, distinguishing the physical effects of temperature from behavior changes based on sensory processing. We also characterize the strategies larvae use to modulate individual behavioral components to produce directed navigation along thermal gradients, and how these strategies change during physical development. Simulations based on modified random walks show where thermotaxis in each developmental stage fits into the larger context of possible navigation strategies. We also investigate cool sensing neurons in the larva's dorsal organ ganglion, characterizing neural response to sine-wave modulation of temperature while performing single-cell-resolution 3D imaging. We determine the sensitivity of these neurons, which produce signals in response to extremely small temperature changes. Combining thermotaxis results with neurophysiology data, we observe, across development, sensitivity to temperature change as low as a few thousandths of a °C per second, or a few hundredths of a °C in absolute temperature change.

    more » « less