We study the variations of the topside ionospheric ion density measured by Defense Meteorological Satellite Program satellites during the intense magnetic storm on 7–10 November 2004. It is found for the first time that quasi‐periodic enhancements in the ion density with a period of ∼6 hr occur nearly simultaneously at 0630, 0830, and 0930 local time in the dawn sector during the storm main phase with southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). The quasi‐periodic density enhancements extend from the southern subauroral latitudes to the northern subauroral latitudes. In the dusk sector, the topside ion density during the storm main phase is increased at middle latitudes for ∼12 hr but shows decrease or relatively small increase over the magnetic equator, indicating that penetration electric fields dominate the ion density redistribution. Similar quasi‐periodic enhancements in the topside ion density are also observed in the dawn sector during other intense magnetic storms. The solar wind and IMF do not have quasi‐periodic variations in this storm case. Periodic processes in geospace, such as periodic substorms in the magnetosphere, waves and tides in the atmosphere, and traveling ionospheric disturbances, cannot explain the observed periodic enhancements of the ionospheric ion density. We suggest that the magnetosphere‐ionospheric‐thermospheric system may have an intrinsic period of ∼6 hr and that oscillations of the magnetosphere‐ionospheric‐thermospheric system with this period can be excited during intense magnetic storms, although the mechanisms for the generation of the long‐periodic oscillations are not understood.
We use the Space Weather Modeling Framework Geospace configuration to simulate a total of 122 storms from the period 2010–2019. With the focus on the storm main phase, each storm period was run for 54 hr starting from 6 hr prior to the start of the Dst depression. The simulation output of ground magnetic variations, Δ
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- DOI PREFIX: 10.1029
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Space Weather
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Ion transport from the plasma sheet to the ring current is the main cause of the development of the ring current. Energetic (>150 keV) ring current ions are known to be transported diffusively in several days. A recent study suggested that energetic oxygen ions are transported closer to the Earth than protons due to the diffusive transport caused by a combination of the drift and drift‐bounce resonances with Pc 3–5 ultralow frequency waves during the 24 April 2013 magnetic storm. To understand the occurrence conditions of such selective oxygen increase (SOI), we investigate the phase space densities (PSDs) between protons and oxygen ions with the first adiabatic invariants (
μ) of 0.1–2.0 keV/nT measured by the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment instrument on the Van Allen Probes at L~ 3–6 during 90 magnetic storms in 2013–2017. We identified the SOI events in which oxygen PSDs increase while proton PSDs do not increase during a period of ~9 hr (one orbital period). Among the 90 magnetic storms, 33% were accompanied by the SOI events. Global enhancements of Pc 4 and Pc 5 waves observed by ground magnetometers during the SOI events suggest that radial transport due to combination of the drift‐bounce resonance with Pc 4 oscillations and the drift resonance with Pc 5 oscillations can be the cause of SOIs. The contribution of the SOI events to the magnetic storm intensity is roughly estimated to be ~9% on average.
The geomagnetic storm on February 3, 2022 caused the loss of 38 Starlink satellites of Space‐X. The Global‐scale Observations of the Limb and Disk (GOLD) observations and Multi‐Scale Atmosphere Geospace Environment (MAGE) model simulations are utilized to investigate the thermospheric composition responses to the Space‐X storm. The percentage difference of the GOLD observed thermospheric O and N2column density ratio (∑O/N2) between the storm time (February 3, Day‐of‐Year [DOY] 34) and quiet time (DOY 32) shows a depletion region in the local noon sector mid‐high latitudes in the southern hemisphere, which corresponds to the east side of GOLD field‐of‐view (FOV). This is different from the classic theory of thermospheric composition disturbance during geomagnetic storms, under which the ∑O/N2depletion is usually generated at local midnight and high latitudes, and thus, appear on the west side of GOLD FOV. MAGE simulations reproduce the observations qualitatively and indicate that the ∑O/N2depletion is formed due to strong upwelling in the local morning caused by strong Joule heating. Interestingly, enhanced equatorward winds appear near local midnight, but also in the local morning sector, which transports ∑O/N2depletion equatorward. The depletion corotates toward the local afternoon and is observed in the GOLD FOV. The equatorward winds in the local morning are due to the ion‐neutral coupling under the conditions of a dominant positive interplanetary magnetic field east‐west component (
By) during the storm.
In this study, we utilized both ground‐based and space‐borne observations including total electron content (TEC) from Beidou geostationary satellites, two‐dimensional TEC maps from the worldwide dense Global Navigation Satellite System receivers, ionosondes, and in situ electron density (
Ne) and electron temperature ( Te) from both Swarm and China Seismo‐Electromagnetic Satellite satellites, to investigate the low‐latitude ionospheric responses to the annular solar eclipse on 21 June 2020. The decrease in TEC during the eclipse at low latitudes showed a local time dependence with the largest depletions in the noon and afternoon sectors. It was also found that the TEC depletions at different latitudes in the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) region over the East Asian sector cannot solely be explained by the solar flux changes associated with the obscuration rate. The differences in TEC reduction between stations can be more than a factor of 2 at latitudes with the same obscuration rate of over 90%. Compared with TEC variations in the Northern Hemisphere, the TEC also underwent a considerable decrease in the EIA region in the conjugate hemisphere without eclipse shadow. Meanwhile, the h m F2near the magnetic equator increased around the onset of the eclipse, indicating an enhancement of the eastward equatorial electric field. Furthermore, the TEC decrease during the eclipse in the EIA region in both hemispheres lasted for a long period of more than 7 hr after the eclipse, with a TEC depletion of 2–6 TEC units. The Nefrom Swarm and China Seismo‐Electromagnetic Satellite satellites showed a complicated variation after the eclipse, whereas no visible change was observed in Te. The enhanced equatorial electric field, neutral wind changes, and the associated plasma transport act together to generate the observed ionospheric effects at low latitudes during the eclipse. Our results also suggest that the eclipse‐induced perturbations of dynamic processes can continue to impact the ionosphere after the eclipse.
null (Ed.)Abstract The Electron Loss and Fields Investigation with a Spatio-Temporal Ambiguity-Resolving option (ELFIN-STAR, or heretoforth simply: ELFIN) mission comprises two identical 3-Unit (3U) CubeSats on a polar (∼93 ∘ inclination), nearly circular, low-Earth (∼450 km altitude) orbit. Launched on September 15, 2018, ELFIN is expected to have a >2.5 year lifetime. Its primary science objective is to resolve the mechanism of storm-time relativistic electron precipitation, for which electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are a prime candidate. From its ionospheric vantage point, ELFIN uses its unique pitch-angle-resolving capability to determine whether measured relativistic electron pitch-angle and energy spectra within the loss cone bear the characteristic signatures of scattering by EMIC waves or whether such scattering may be due to other processes. Pairing identical ELFIN satellites with slowly-variable along-track separation allows disambiguation of spatial and temporal evolution of the precipitation over minutes-to-tens-of-minutes timescales, faster than the orbit period of a single low-altitude satellite (T orbit ∼ 90 min). Each satellite carries an energetic particle detector for electrons (EPDE) that measures 50 keV to 5 MeV electrons with $\Delta $ Δ E/E < 40% and a fluxgate magnetometer (FGM) on a ∼72 cm boom that measures magnetic field waves (e.g., EMIC waves) in the range from DC to 5 Hz Nyquist (nominally) with <0.3 nT/sqrt(Hz) noise at 1 Hz. The spinning satellites (T spin $\,\sim $ ∼ 3 s) are equipped with magnetorquers (air coils) that permit spin-up or -down and reorientation maneuvers. Using those, the spin axis is placed normal to the orbit plane (nominally), allowing full pitch-angle resolution twice per spin. An energetic particle detector for ions (EPDI) measures 250 keV – 5 MeV ions, addressing secondary science. Funded initially by CalSpace and the University Nanosat Program, ELFIN was selected for flight with joint support from NSF and NASA between 2014 and 2018 and launched by the ELaNa XVIII program on a Delta II rocket (with IceSatII as the primary). Mission operations are currently funded by NASA. Working under experienced UCLA mentors, with advice from The Aerospace Corporation and NASA personnel, more than 250 undergraduates have matured the ELFIN implementation strategy; developed the instruments, satellite, and ground systems and operate the two satellites. ELFIN’s already high potential for cutting-edge science return is compounded by concurrent equatorial Heliophysics missions (THEMIS, Arase, Van Allen Probes, MMS) and ground stations. ELFIN’s integrated data analysis approach, rapid dissemination strategies via the SPace Environment Data Analysis System (SPEDAS), and data coordination with the Heliophysics/Geospace System Observatory (H/GSO) optimize science yield, enabling the widest community benefits. Several storm-time events have already been captured and are presented herein to demonstrate ELFIN’s data analysis methods and potential. These form the basis of on-going studies to resolve the primary mission science objective. Broad energy precipitation events, precipitation bands, and microbursts, clearly seen both at dawn and dusk, extend from tens of keV to >1 MeV. This broad energy range of precipitation indicates that multiple waves are providing scattering concurrently. Many observed events show significant backscattered fluxes, which in the past were hard to resolve by equatorial spacecraft or non-pitch-angle-resolving ionospheric missions. These observations suggest that the ionosphere plays a significant role in modifying magnetospheric electron fluxes and wave-particle interactions. Routine data captures starting in February 2020 and lasting for at least another year, approximately the remainder of the mission lifetime, are expected to provide a very rich dataset to address questions even beyond the primary mission science objective.more » « less