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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 16, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 11, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Abstract For the first time, we simulate the detailed spectral line emission from a solar active region (AR) with the Alfvén Wave Solar Model (AWSoM). We select an AR appearing near disk center on 2018 July 13 and use the National Solar Observatory’s Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager synoptic magnetogram to specify the magnetic field at the model’s inner boundary. To resolve small-scale magnetic features, we apply adaptive mesh refinement with a horizontal spatial resolution of 0°.35 (4.5 Mm), four times higher than the background corona. We then apply the SPECTRUM code, using CHIANTI spectral emissivities, to calculate spectral lines formingmore »at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 3 MK. Comparisons are made between the simulated line intensities and those observed by Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer where we find close agreement across a wide range of loop sizes and temperatures (about 20% relative error for both the loop top and footpoints at a temperature of about 1.5 MK). We also simulate and compare Doppler velocities and find that simulated flow patterns are of comparable magnitude to what is observed. Our results demonstrate the broad applicability of the low-frequency AWSoM for explaining the heating of coronal loops.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  5. Abstract In van der Holst et al. (2019), we modeled the solar corona and inner heliosphere of the first encounter of NASA’s Parker Solar Probe (PSP) using the Alfvén Wave Solar atmosphere Model (AWSoM) with Air Force Data Assimilative Photospheric flux Transport–Global Oscillation Network Group magnetograms, and made predictions of the state of the solar wind plasma for the first encounter. AWSoM uses low-frequency Alfvén wave turbulence to address the coronal heating and acceleration. Here, we revise our simulations, by introducing improvements in the energy partitioning of the wave dissipation to the electron and anisotropic proton heating and using amore »better grid design. We compare the new AWSoM results with the PSP data and find improved agreement with the magnetic field, turbulence level, and parallel proton plasma beta. To deduce the sources of the solar wind observed by PSP, we use the AWSoM model to determine the field line connectivity between PSP locations near the perihelion at 2018 November 6 UT 03:27 and the solar surface. Close to the perihelion, the field lines trace back to a negative-polarity region about the equator.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2023
  6. Abstract To simulate solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and predict their time of arrival and geomagnetic impact, it is important to accurately model the background solar wind conditions in which CMEs propagate. We use the Alfvén Wave Solar atmosphere Model (AWSoM) within the the Space Weather Modeling Framework to simulate solar maximum conditions during two Carrington rotations and produce solar wind background conditions comparable to the observations. We describe the inner boundary conditions for AWSoM using the ADAPT global magnetic maps and validate the simulated results with EUV observations in the low corona and measured plasma parameters at L1 asmore »well as at the position of the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory spacecraft. This work complements our prior AWSoM validation study for solar minimum conditions and shows that during periods of higher magnetic activity, AWSoM can reproduce the solar plasma conditions (using properly adjusted photospheric Poynting flux) suitable for providing proper initial conditions for launching CMEs.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2022
  8. MHD-based global space weather models have mostly been developed and maintained at academic institutions. While the ``free spirit'' approach of academia enables the rapid emergence and testing of new ideas and methods, the lack of long-term stability and support makes this arrangement very challenging. This paper describes a successful example of a university-based group, the Center of Space Environment Modeling (CSEM) at the University of Michigan that developed and maintained the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) and its core element, the BATS-R-US extended MHD code. It took a quarter of a century to develop this capability and reach its presentmore »level of maturity that makes it suitable for research use by the space physics community through the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) as well as operational use by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC).« less