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Title: Examining the mass loss and thermal properties of 3D printed models produced by fused deposition modeling and stereolithography under elevated temperatures
Purpose This paper aims to study the mass loss of three-dimensional (3D) printed materials at high temperatures. A preconcentration and analysis technique, static headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SHS-GC-MS), is demonstrated for the analysis of volatile compounds liberated from fused deposition modeling (FDM) and stereolithography (SLA) 3D printed models under elevated temperatures. Design/methodology/approach A total of seven commercial 3D printing materials were tested using the SHS-GC-MS approach. The printed model mass and mass loss were examined as a function of FDM printing parameters including printcore temperature, model size and printing speed, and the use of SLA postprocessing procedures. A high temperature resin was used to demonstrate that thermal degradation products can be identified when the model is incubated under high temperatures. Findings At higher printing temperatures and larger model sizes, the initial printed model mass increased and showed more significant mass loss after thermal incubation for FDM models. For models produced by SLA, the implementation of a postprocessing procedure reduced the mass loss at elevated temperatures. All FDM models showed severe structural deformation when exposed to high temperatures, while SLA models remained structurally intact. Mass spectra and chromatographic retention times acquired from the high temperature resin facilitated identification of eight compounds (monomers, crosslinkers and several photoinitiators) liberated from the resin. Originality/value The study exploits the high sensitivity of SHS-GC-MS to identify thermal degradation products emitted from 3D printed models under elevated temperatures. The results will aid in choosing appropriate filament/resin materials and printing mechanisms for applications that require elevated temperatures.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Rapid Prototyping Journal
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1978 to 1989
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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