This content will become publicly available on December 7, 2023
To address this challenge, an AlGaN/GaN HEMT employing a transparent gate made of indium tin oxide (ITO) was fabricated, which enables full channel temperature mapping using Raman spectroscopy. It was found that the maximum channel temperature rise under a partially pinched-off condition is more than ∼93% higher than that for an open more »
- Award ID(s):
- Publication Date:
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Journal Name:
- ASME 2022 International Technical Conference and Exhibition on Packaging and Integration of Electronic and Photonic Microsystems
- Page Range or eLocation-ID:
- 1 - 8
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
Featuring broadband operation and high efficiency, gallium nitride (GaN)-based radio frequency (RF) power amplifiers are key components to realize the next generation mobile network. However, to fully implement GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) for such applications, it is necessary to overcome thermal reliability concerns stemming from localized extreme temperature gradients that form under high voltage and power operation. In this work, we developed a deep-ultraviolet thermoreflectance thermal imaging capability, which can potentially offer the highest spatial resolution among diffraction-limited far-field optical thermography techniques. Experiments were performed to compare device channel temperatures obtained from near-ultraviolet and deep-ultraviolet wavelength illumination sources for the proof of concept of the new characterization method. Deep-ultraviolet thermoreflectance imaging will facilitate the study of device self-heating within transistors based on GaN and emerging ultra-wide bandgap semiconductors (e.g., β-Ga2O3, AlxGa1-xN, and diamond) subjected to simultaneous extreme electric field and heat flux conditions.
Device-Level Multidimensional Thermal Dynamics With Implications for Current and Future Wide Bandgap ElectronicsAbstract Researchers have been extensively studying wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor materials such as gallium nitride (GaN) with an aim to accomplish an improvement in size, weight, and power of power electronics beyond current devices based on silicon (Si). However, the increased operating power densities and reduced areal footprints of WBG device technologies result in significant levels of self-heating that can ultimately restrict device operation through performance degradation, reliability issues, and failure. Typically, self-heating in WBG devices is studied using a single measurement technique while operating the device under steady-state direct current measurement conditions. However, for switching applications, this steady-state thermal characterization may lose significance since the high power dissipation occurs during fast transient switching events. Therefore, it can be useful to probe the WBG devices under transient measurement conditions in order to better understand the thermal dynamics of these systems in practical applications. In this work, the transient thermal dynamics of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) were studied using thermoreflectance thermal imaging and Raman thermometry. Also, the proper use of iterative pulsed measurement schemes such as thermoreflectance thermal imaging to determine the steady-state operating temperature of devices is discussed. These studies are followed with subsequent transient thermal characterization tomore »
Gallium nitride high-electron-mobility transistors (GaN HEMTs) are at a point of rapid growth in defense (radar, SATCOM) and commercial (5G and beyond) industries. This growth also comes at a point at which the standard GaN heterostructures remain unoptimized for maximum performance. For this reason, we propose the shift to the aluminum nitride (AlN) platform. AlN allows for smarter, highly-scaled heterostructure design that will improve the output power and thermal management of III-nitride amplifiers. Beyond improvements over the incumbent amplifier technology, AlN will allow for a level of integration previously unachievable with GaN electronics. State-of-the-art high-current p-channel FETs, mature filter technology, and advanced waveguides, all monolithically integrated with an AlN/GaN/AlN HEMT, is made possible with AlN. It is on this new AlN platform that nitride electronics may maximize their full high-power, high-speed potential for mm-wave communication and high-power logic applications.
In this study, we compared the transient self-heating behavior of a homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3 MOSFET and a GaN-on-Si HEMT using nanoparticle-assisted Raman thermometry and thermoreflectance thermal imaging. The effectiveness of bottom-side and double-side cooling schemes using a polycrystalline diamond substrate and a diamond passivation layer were studied via transient thermal modeling. Because of the low thermal diffusivity of β-Ga2O3, the use of a β-Ga2O3 composite substrate (bottom-side cooling) must be augmented by a diamond passivation layer (top-side cooling) to effectively cool the device active region under both steady-state and transient operating conditions. Without no proper cooling applied, the steady-state device-to-package thermal resistance of a homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3 MOSFET is 2.6 times higher than that for a GaN-on-Si HEMT. Replacing the substrate with polycrystalline diamond (under a 6.5 μm-thick β-Ga2O3 layer) could reduce the steady-state temperature rise by 65% compared to that for a homoepitaxial β-Ga2O3 MOSFET. However, for high frequency power switching applications beyond the ~102 kHz range, bottom-side cooling (integration with a high thermal conductivity substrate) does not improve the transient thermal response of the device. Adding a diamond passivation over layer diamond not only suppresses the steadystate temperature rise, but also drastically reduces the transient temperature rise under high frequencymore »
Strain localization in microelectronic devices commonly arises from device geometry, materials, and fabrication processing. In this study, we controllably relieve the local strain field of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs by milling micro-trenches underneath the channel and compare the device performance as a function of the relieved strain as well as radiation dosage. Micro-Raman results suggest that the trenches locally relax the strain in device layers, decreasing the 2DEG density and mobility. Intriguingly, such strain relaxation is shown to minimize the radiation damage, measured after 10 Mrads of 60 Co-gamma exposure. For example, a 6-trench device showed only ∼8% and ∼6% decrease in saturation drain current and maximum transconductance, respectively, compared to corresponding values of ∼15% and ∼30% in a no-trench device. Negative and positive threshold voltage shifts are observed in 6-trench and no-trench devices, respectively, after gamma radiation. We hypothesize that the extent of gamma radiation damage depends on the strain level in the devices. Thus, even though milling a trench decreases 2DEG mobility, such decrease under gamma radiation is far less in a 6-trench device (∼1.5%) compared to a no-trench device (∼20%) with higher built-in strain.