skip to main content


Title: Lattice-QCD-based equations of state at finite temperature and density
The equation of state (EoS) of QCD is a crucial input for the modeling of heavy-ion-collision (HIC) and neutron-star-merger systems. Calculations of the fundamental theory of QCD, which could yield the true EoS, are hindered by the infamous Fermi sign problem which only allows direct simulations at zero or imaginary baryonic chemical potential. As a direct consequence, the current coverage of the QCD phase diagram by lattice simulations is limited. In these proceedings, two different equations of state based on first-principle lattice QCD (LQCD) calculations are discussed. The first is solely informed by the fundamental theory by utilizing all available diagonal and non-diagonal susceptibilities up to O(µ 4 B) in order to reconstruct a full EoS at finite baryon number, electric charge and strangeness chemical potentials. For the second, we go beyond information from the lattice in order to explore the conjectured phase structure, not yet determined by LQCD methods, to assist the experimental HIC community in their search for the critical point. We incorporate critical behavior into this EoS by relying on the principle of universality classes, of which QCD belongs to the 3D Ising Model. This allows one to study the effects of a singularity on the thermodynamical quantities that make up the equation of state used for hydrodynamical simulations of HICs. Additionally, we ensure that these EoSs are valid for applications to HICs by enforcing conditions of strangeness neutrality and fixed charge-to-baryonnumber ratio.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2138063
NSF-PAR ID:
10401715
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Suplemento de la Revista Mexicana de Física
Volume:
3
Issue:
4
ISSN:
2683-2585
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    We review the equation of state of QCD matter at finite densities. We discuss the construction of the equation of state with net baryon number, electric charge, and strangeness using the results of lattice QCD simulations and hadron resonance gas models. Its application to the hydrodynamic analyses of relativistic nuclear collisions suggests that the interplay of multiple conserved charges is important in the quantitative understanding of the dense nuclear matter created at lower beam energies. Several different models of the QCD equation of state are discussed for comparison. 
    more » « less
  2. Kim, Y. ; Moon, D.H. (Ed.)
    In this contribution we present a resummation of the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) equation of state from lattice simulations at imaginary chemical potentials. We generalize the scheme introduced in a previous work [1], to the case of non-zero strangeness chemical potential. We present continuum extrapolated results for thermodynamic observables in the temperature range 130MeV ≤ T ≤ 280 MeV, for chemical potentials up to μ B / T = 3:5, along the strangeness neutral line. Furthermore, we relax the constraint of strangeness neutrality, by extrapolating to small values of the strangeness-to-baryon-number ratio R = n S / n B . 
    more » « less
  3. Kim, Y. ; Moon, D.H. (Ed.)
    At low to moderate collision energies where the parton formation time τ F is not small compared to the nuclear crossing time, the finite nuclear thickness significantly affects the energy density ϵ( t ) and net conserved-charge densities such as the net-baryon density n B ( t ) produced in heavy ion collisions. As a result, at low to moderate energies the trajectory in the QCD phase diagram is also affected by the finite nuclear thickness. Here, we first discuss our semi-analytical model and its results on ϵ( f ), n R ( t ), n Q ( t ), and n s ( t ) in central Au+Au collisions. We then compare the T ( t ), μ B ( t ), μ Q ( t ), and μ S ( t ) extracted with the ideal gas equation of state (EoS) with quantum statistics to those extracted with a lattice QCD-based EoS. We also compare the T -μ B trajectories with the RHIC chemical freezeout data. Finally, we discuss the effect of transverse flow on the trajectories. 
    more » « less
  4. By using gravity/gauge correspondence, we employ an Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton model to compute the equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma. The family of 5-dimensional holographic black holes, which are constrained to mimic the lattice QCD equation of state at zero density, is used to investigate the temperature and baryon chemical potential dependence of the equation of state. We also obtained the baryon charge conductivity, and the bulk and shear viscosities with a particular focus on the behavior of these observables on top of the critical end point and the line of first order phase transition predicted by the model. 
    more » « less
  5. In this work, we discuss the deconfinement phase transition to quark matter in hot/dense matter. We examine the effect that different charge fractions, isospin fractions, net strangeness, and chemical equilibrium with respect to leptons have on the position of the coexistence line between different phases. In particular, we investigate how different sets of conditions that describe matter in neutron stars and their mergers, or matter created in heavy-ion collisions affect the position of the critical end point, namely where the first-order phase transition becomes a crossover. We also present an introduction to the topic of critical points, including a review of recent advances concerning QCD critical points. 
    more » « less