In-depth knowledge about the global patterns and dynamics of land surface net water flux (NWF) is essential for quantification of depletion and recharge of groundwater resources. Net water flux cannot be directly measured, and its estimates as a residual of individual surface flux components often suffer from mass conservation errors due to accumulated systematic biases of individual fluxes. Here, for the first time, we provide direct estimates of global NWF based on near-surface satellite soil moisture retrievals from the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellites. We apply a recently developed analytical model derived via inversion of the linearized Richards’ equation. The model is parsimonious, yet yields unbiased estimates of long-term cumulative NWF that is generally well correlated with the terrestrial water storage anomaly from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite. In addition, in conjunction with precipitation and evapotranspiration retrievals, the resultant NWF estimates provide a new means for retrieving global infiltration and runoff from satellite observations. However, the efficacy of the proposed approach over densely vegetated regions is questionable, due to the uncertainty of the satellite soil moisture retrievals and the lack of explicit parameterization of transpiration by deeply rooted plants in the proposed model. Future research is needed to advance this modeling paradigm to explicitly account for plant transpiration.
The Consistent Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based Soil Moisture (CASM) dataset is a global, consistent, and long-term, remote sensing soil moisture (SM) dataset created using machine learning. It is based on the NASA Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite mission SM data and is aimed at extrapolating SMAP-like quality SM back in time using previous satellite microwave platforms. CASM represents SM in the top soil layer, and it is defined on a global 25 km EASE-2 grid and for 2002–2020 with a 3-day temporal resolution. The seasonal cycle is removed for the neural network training to ensure its skill is targeted at predicting SM extremes. CASM comparison to 367 global
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Nature Publishing Group
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Scientific Data
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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Irrigation representation in land surface models has been advanced over the past decade, but the soil moisture (SM) data from SMAP satellite have not yet been utilized in large‐scale irrigation modeling. Here we investigate the potential of improving irrigation representation in the Community Land Model version‐4.5 (CLM4.5) by assimilating SMAP data. Simulations are conducted over the heavily irrigated central U.S. region. We find that constraining the target SM in CLM4.5 using SMAP data assimilation with 1‐D Kalman filter reduces the root‐mean‐square error of simulated irrigation water requirement by 50% on average (for Nebraska, Kansas, and Texas) and significantly improves irrigation simulations by reducing the bias in irrigation water requirement by up to 60%. An a priori bias correction of SMAP data further improves these results in some regions but incrementally. Data assimilation also enhances SM simulations in CLM4.5. These results could provide a basis for improved modeling of irrigation and land‐atmosphere interactions.
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