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Title: 3D hydrodynamics simulations of internal gravity waves in red giant branch stars

We present the first 3D hydrodynamics simulations of the excitation and propagation of internal gravity waves (IGWs) in the radiative interiors of low-mass stars on the red giant branch (RGB). We use the ppmstar explicit gas dynamics code to simulate a portion of the convective envelope and all the radiative zone down to the hydrogen-burning shell of a $1.2\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$ upper RGB star. We perform simulations for different grid resolutions (7683, 15363, and 28803), a range of driving luminosities, and two different stratifications (corresponding to the bump luminosity and the tip of the RGB). Our RGB tip simulations can be directly performed at the nominal luminosity, circumventing the need for extrapolations to lower luminosities. A rich, continuous spectrum of IGWs is observed, with a significant amount of total power contained at high wavenumbers. By following the time evolution of a passive dye in the stable layers, we find that IGW mixing in our simulations is weaker than predicted by a simple analytical prescription based on shear mixing and not efficient enough to explain the missing RGB extra mixing. However, we may be underestimating the efficiency of IGW mixing given that our simulations include a limited portion of the convective envelope. Quadrupling its radial extent compared to our fiducial set-up increases convective velocities by up to a factor 2 and IGW velocities by up to a factor 4. We also report the formation of a $\sim 0.2\, H_P$ penetration zone and evidence that IGWs are excited by plumes that overshoot into the stable layers.

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Award ID(s):
1814181 2032010 1927130
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Page Range / eLocation ID:
p. 1706-1725
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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