skip to main content


Title: A Mechanistic Perspective on the Mechanochemical Method To Reduce Carbonyl Groups with Stainless Steel and Water
Abstract

Mechanochemistry through high‐speed ball milling has become an increasingly popular method for performing organic transformations. This newfound interest in high‐speed ball milling is in part driven by the benefit of performing reactions in the absence of solvent. Mechanochemical reactions are often conducted in stainless‐steel vials with stainless‐steel balls. Since stainless steel is made of several readily oxidizable metals (Fe, Cr, and Ni), reduction reactions using water as a hydrogen source were explored using a temperature‐controlled mixer mill. Mechanistic studies suggest that the reduction proceeds via a single electron transfer (SET) pathway, with iron and nickel being essential components for the reaction.

 
more » « less
Award ID(s):
2102192
NSF-PAR ID:
10410804
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
European Journal of Organic Chemistry
Volume:
26
Issue:
23
ISSN:
1434-193X
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    INTRODUCTION: Orthopedic implants are important therapeutic devices for the management of a wide range of orthopedic conditions. However, bacterial infections of orthopedic implants remain a major problem, and not an uncommon one, leading to an increased rate of osteomyelitis, sepsis, implant failure and dysfunction, etc. Treating these infections is more challenging as the causative organism protects itself by the production of a biofilm over the implant’s surface (1). Infections start by the adhesion and colonization of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) on the implant’s surfaces. Specifically, Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens involved in orthopedic implant infections (2). However, bacterial surface adhesion is a complex process influenced by several factors such as chemical composition, hydrophobicity, magnetization, surface charge, and surface roughness of the implant (3). Considering the intimate association between bacteria and the implant surface, we measured the effect of stainless-steel surface properties on bacterial surface attachment and subsequent formation of biofilms controlling above mentioned factors. METHODS: The prominent bacteria responsible for orthopedic implant infections (SA, SE, E. coli, MRSA, and MDR E. coli) were used in this study. We were able to control the grain size of medical grade 304 and 316L stainless steel without altering their chemical composition (grain size range= 20μm-200nm) (4). Grain size control affected the nano-topography of the material surfaces which was measured by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Grain sizes, such as 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 9, and 10 μm, were used both polished and non-polished. All the stainless-steel samples were cleaned by treating with acetone and ethanol under sonication. Triplicates of all polished and non-polished samples with different grain sizes were subjected to magnetization of DM, 0.1T, 0.5T, and 1T, before seeding them with the bacteria. Controls were used in the form of untreated samples. Bacterial were grown in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). An actively growing bacterial suspension was seeded onto the stainless-steel discs into 24-well micro-titer plates and kept for incubation. After 24 hours of incubation, the stainless-steel discs were washed with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) to remove the plankton bacteria and allow the sessile bacteria in the biofilm to remain. The degree of development of the bacterial biofilms on the stainless-steel discs were measured using spectrophotometric analysis. For this, the bacterial biofilm was removed from the stainless steel by sonication. The formation of biofilms was also determined by performing a biofilm staining method using Safranin. RESULTS SECTION: AFM results revealed a slight decrease in roughness by decreasing the grain size of the material. Moreover, the samples were segregated into two categories of polished and non-polished samples, in which polishing decreased roughness significantly. After careful analysis we found out that polished surfaces showed a higher degree for biofilm formation in comparison to the non-polished ones. We also observed that bacteria showed a higher rate for biofilm formation for the demagnetized samples, whereas 0.5T magnetization showed the least amount of biofilm formation. After 0.5T, there was no significant change in the rate of biofilm formation on the stainless-steel samples. Altogether, stainless steel samples containing 0.5 μm and less grainsize, and magnetized with 0.5 tesla and stronger magnets demonstrated the least degree of biofilm formation. DISCUSSION: In summary, the results demonstrate that controlling the grain size of medical grade stainless steel can control and mitigate bacterial responses on, and thus possibly infections of, orthopedic implants or other implantable devices. The research was funded by Komatsuseiki Kosakusho Co., Ltd (KSJ: Japan) SIGNIFICANCE/CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Orthopedic implants that more than 70% of them are made of metals (i.e., stainless steel, titanium, and cobalt-chromium alloys) are failing through loosening and breakage due to their limited mechanical properties. On the other hand, the risk of infection for these implants and its financial burden on our society is undeniable. We have seen that our uniformly nanograined stainless steel shows improved mechanical properties (i.e., higher stiffness, hardness, fatigue) as compared to conventional stainless steel along with the reduction of biofilm formation on its surface. These promising results made us to peruse the development of nanograined titanium and cobalt-chromium alloys for resolving the complications of orthopedic implants. 
    more » « less
  2. In applications involving fretting wear damage, surfaces with high yield strength and wear resistance are required. In this study, the mechanical responses of materials with graded nanostructured surfaces during fretting sliding are investigated and compared to homogeneous materials through a systematic computational study. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed to characterize the fretting sliding characteristics and shakedown behavior with varying degrees of contact friction and gradient layer thicknesses. Results obtained using a representative model material (i.e., 304 stainless steel) demonstrate that metallic materials with a graded nanostructured surface could exhibit a more than 80% reduction in plastically deformed surface areas and volumes, resulting in superior fretting damage resistance in comparison to homogeneous coarse-grained metals. In particular, a graded nanostructured material can exhibit elastic or plastic shakedown, depending on the contact friction coefficient. Optimal fretting resistance can be achieved for the graded nanostructured material by decreasing the friction coefficient (e.g., from 0.6 to 0.4 in 304 stainless steel), resulting in an elastic shakedown behavior, where the plastically deformed volume and area exhibit zero increment in the accumulated plastic strain during further sliding. These findings in the graded nanostructured materials using 304 stainless steel as a model system can be further tailored for engineering optimal fretting damage resistance. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    A novel approach is demonstrated for the synthesis of the high entropy transition metal boride (Ta, Mo, Hf, Zr, Ti)B2 using a single heating step enabled by microwave-induced plasma. The argon-rich plasma allows rapid boro-carbothermal reduction of a consolidated powder mixture containing the five metal oxides, blended with graphite and boron carbide (B4C) as reducing agents. For plasma exposure as low as 1800 °C for 1 h, a single-phase hexagonal AlB2-type structure forms, with an average particle size of 165 nm and with uniform distribution of the five metal cations in the microstructure. In contrast to primarily convection-based (e.g., vacuum furnace) methods that typically require a thermal reduction step followed by conversion to the single high-entropy phase at elevated temperature, the microwave approach enables rapid heating rates and reduced processing time in a single heating step. The high-entropy phase purity improves significantly with the increasing of the ball milling time of the oxide precursors from two to eight hours. However, further improvement in phase purity was not observed as a result of increasing the microwave processing temperature from 1800 to 2000 °C (for fixed ball milling time). The benefits of microwave plasma heating, in terms of allowing the combination of boro-carbothermal reduction and high entropy single-phase formation in a single heating step, are expected to accelerate progress in the field of high entropy ceramic materials. 
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    We demonstrate a novel technique to achieve highly surface active, functional, and tunable hierarchical porous coated surfaces with high wickability using a combination of ball milling, salt-templating, and sintering techniques. Specifically, using ball-milling to obtain graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) draped copper particles followed by salt templated sintering to induce the strength and cohesiveness to the particles. The salt-templating method was specifically used to promote porosity on the coatings. A systematic study was conducted by varying size of the copper particles, ratio of GNP to copper particles, and process parameters to generate a variety of microporous coatings possessing interconnected pores and tunnels that were observed using electron microscopy. Pool boiling tests exhibited a very high critical heat flux of 289 W/cm2at a wall superheat of just 2.2 °C for the salt templated 3 wt% GNP draped 20 µm diameter copper particles with exceedingly high wicking rates compared to non-salt-templated sintered coatings. The dramatic improvement in the pool boiling performance occurring at a very low surface temperature due to tunable surface properties is highly desirable in heat transfer and many other engineering applications.

     
    more » « less
  5. Statement of Purpose: Orthopedic implants are important therapeutic devices for the management of a wide range of orthopedic conditions. However, bacterial infections of orthopedic implants remain a major problem, and not an uncommon one, leading to an increased rate of osteomyelitis, sepsis, implant failure and dysfunction, etc. Treating these infections is more challenging as the causative organism protects itself by the production of a biofilm over the implant’s surface (1). Infections start by the adhesion and colonization of pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA), Staphylococcus epidermidis (SE), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and Multi-Drug Resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) on the implant’s surfaces. Specifically, Staphylococcus comprises up to two-thirds of all pathogens involved in orthopedic implant infections (2). However, bacterial surface adhesion is a complex process influenced by several factors such as chemical composition, hydrophobicity, magnetization, surface charge, and surface roughness of the implant (3). Considering the intimate association between bacteria and the implant surface, we measured the effect of stainless-steel surface properties on bacterial surface attachment and subsequent formation of biofilms controlling above mentioned factors. Method: The prominent bacteria responsible for orthopedic implant infections (SA, SE, E. coli, MRSA, and MDR E. coli) were used in this study. We were able to control the grain size of medical grade 304 and 316L stainless steel without altering their chemical composition (grain size range= 20μm-200nm) (4). Grain size control affected the nano-topography of the material surfaces which was measured by an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Grain sizes, such as 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 9, and 10 μm, were used both polished and non-polished. All the stainless-steel samples were cleaned by treating with acetone and ethanol under sonication. Triplicates of all polished and non-polished samples with different grain sizes were subjected to magnetization of DM, 0.1T, 0.5T, and 1T, before seeding them with the bacteria. Controls were used in the form of untreated samples. Bacterial were grown in Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB). An actively growing bacterial suspension was seeded onto the stainless-steel discs into 24-well micro-titer plates and kept for incubation. After 24 hours of incubation, the stainless-steel discs were washed with Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) to remove the plankton bacteria and allow the sessile bacteria in the biofilm to remain. The degree of development of the bacterial biofilms on the stainless-steel discs were measured using spectrophotometric analysis. For this, the bacterial biofilm was removed from the stainless steel by sonication. The formation of biofilms was also determined by performing a biofilm staining method using Safranin. Results: AFM results revealed a slight decrease in roughness by decreasing the grain size of the material. Moreover, the samples were segregated into two categories of polished and non-polished samples, in which polishing decreased roughness significantly. After careful analysis we found out that polished surfaces showed a higher degree for biofilm formation in comparison to the non-polished ones. We also observed that bacteria showed a higher rate for biofilm formation for the demagnetized samples, whereas 0.5T magnetization showed the least amount of biofilm formation. After 0.5T, there was no significant change in the rate of biofilm formation on the stainless-steel samples. Altogether, stainless steel samples containing 0.5 μm and less grainsize, and magnetized with 0.5 tesla and stronger magnets demonstrated the least degree of biofilm formation. Conclusion: In summary, the results demonstrate that controlling the grain size of medical grade stainless steel can control and mitigate bacterial responses on, and thus possibly infections of, orthopedic implants or other implantable devices. The research was funded by Komatsuseiki Kosakusho Co., Ltd (KSJ: Japan) 
    more » « less