skip to main content

Title: Transductive Linear Probing: A Novel Framework for Few-Shot Node Classification
Few-shot node classification is tasked to provide accurate predictions for nodes from novel classes with only few representative labeled nodes. This problem has drawn tremendous attention for its projection to prevailing real-world applications, such as product categorization for newly added commodity categories on an E-commerce platform with scarce records or diagnoses for rare diseases on a patient similarity graph. To tackle such challenging label scarcity issues in the non-Euclidean graph domain, meta-learning has become a successful and predominant paradigm. More recently, inspired by the development of graph self-supervised learning, transferring pretrained node embeddings for few-shot node classification could be a promising alternative to meta-learning but remains unexposed. In this work, we empirically demonstrate the potential of an alternative framework, \textit{Transductive Linear Probing}, that transfers pretrained node embeddings, which are learned from graph contrastive learning methods. We further extend the setting of few-shot node classification from standard fully supervised to a more realistic self-supervised setting, where meta-learning methods cannot be easily deployed due to the shortage of supervision from training classes. Surprisingly, even without any ground-truth labels, transductive linear probing with self-supervised graph contrastive pretraining can outperform the state-of-the-art fully supervised meta-learning based methods under the same protocol. We hope this work can shed new light on few-shot node classification problems and foster future research on learning from scarcely labeled instances on graphs.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2006844 2144209 2223769 2154962 2228534
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Proceedings of the First Learning on Graphs Conference
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Few-shot node classification, which aims to predict labels for nodes on graphs with only limited labeled nodes as references, is of great significance in real-world graph mining tasks. Particularly, in this paper, we refer to the task of classifying nodes in classes with a few labeled nodes as the few-shot node classification problem. To tackle such a label shortage issue, existing works generally leverage the meta-learning framework, which utilizes a number of episodes to extract transferable knowledge from classes with abundant labeled nodes and generalizes the knowledge to other classes with limited labeled nodes. In essence, the primary aim of few-shot node classification is to learn node embeddings that are generalizable across different classes. To accomplish this, the GNN encoder must be able to distinguish node embeddings between different classes, while also aligning embeddings for nodes in the same class. Thus, in this work, we propose to consider both the intra-class and inter-class generalizability of the model. We create a novel contrastive meta-learning framework on graphs, named COSMIC, with two key designs. First, we propose to enhance the intra-class generalizability by involving a contrastive two-step optimization in each episode to explicitly align node embeddings in the same classes. Second, we strengthen the inter-class generalizability by generating hard node classes via a novel similarity-sensitive mix-up strategy. Extensive experiments on few-shot node classification datasets verify the superiority of our framework over state-of-the-art baselines. 
    more » « less
  2. Node classification is of great importance among various graph mining tasks. In practice, real-world graphs generally follow the long-tail distribution, where a large number of classes only consist of limited labeled nodes. Although Graph Neural Networks (GNNs) have achieved significant improvements in node classification, their performance decreases substantially in such a few-shot scenario. The main reason can be attributed to the vast generalization gap between meta-training and meta-test due to the task variance caused by different node/class distributions in meta-tasks (i.e., node-level and class-level variance). Therefore, to effectively alleviate the impact of task variance, we propose a task-adaptive node classification framework under the few-shot learning setting. Specifically, we first accumulate meta-knowledge across classes with abundant labeled nodes. Then we transfer such knowledge to the classes with limited labeled nodes via our proposed task-adaptive modules. In particular, to accommodate the different node/class distributions among meta-tasks, we propose three essential modules to perform node-level, class-level, and task-level adaptations in each meta-task, respectively. In this way, our framework can conduct adaptations to different meta-tasks and thus advance the model generalization performance on meta-test tasks. Extensive experiments on four prevalent node classification datasets demonstrate the superiority of our framework over the state-of-the-art baselines. Our code is provided at 
    more » « less
  3. Graphs have emerged as one of the most important and powerful data structures to perform content analysis in many fields. In this line of work, node classification is a classic task, which is generally performed using graph neural networks (GNNs). Unfortunately, regular GNNs cannot be well generalized into the real-world application scenario when the labeled nodes are few. To address this challenge, we propose a novel few-shot node classification model that leverages pseudo-labeling with graph active learning. We first provide a theoretical analysis to argue that extra unlabeled data benefit few-shot classification. Inspired by this, our model proceeds by performing multi-level data augmentation with consistency and contrastive regularizations for better semi-supervised pseudo-labeling, and further devising graph active learning to facilitate pseudo-label selection and improve model effectiveness. Extensive experiments on four public citation networks have demonstrated that our model can effectively improve node classification accuracy with considerably few labeled data, which significantly outperforms all state-of-the-art baselines by large margins. 
    more » « less
  4. For real-world graph data, the node class distribution is inherently imbalanced and long-tailed, which naturally leads to a few-shot learning scenario with limited nodes labeled for newly emerging classes. Existing efforts are carefully designed to solve such a few-shot learning problem via data augmentation, learning transferable initialization, to name a few. However, most, if not all, of them are based on a strong assumption that all the test nodes must exclusively come from novel classes, which is impractical in real-world applications. In this paper, we study a broader and more realistic problem named generalized few-shot node classification, where the test samples can be from both novel classes and base classes. Compared with the standard fewshot node classification, this new problem imposes several unique challenges, including asymmetric classification and inconsistent preference. To counter those challenges, we propose a shot-aware graph neural network (STAGER) equipped with an uncertainty-based weight assigner module for adaptive propagation. To formulate this problem from the meta-learning perspective, we propose a new training paradigm named imbalanced episodic training to ensure the label distribution is consistent between the training and test scenarios. Experiment results on four real-world datasets demonstrate the efficacy of our model, with up to 14% accuracy improvement over baselines. 
    more » « less
  5. Few-shot node classification aims at classifying nodes with limited labeled nodes as references. Recent few-shot node classification methods typically learn from classes with abundant labeled nodes (i.e., meta-training classes) and then generalize to classes with limited labeled nodes (i.e., meta-test classes). Nevertheless, on real-world graphs, it is usually difficult to obtain abundant labeled nodes for many classes. In practice, each meta-training class can only consist of several labeled nodes, known as the extremely weak supervision problem. In few-shot node classification, with extremely limited labeled nodes for meta-training, the generalization gap between meta-training and meta-test will become larger and thus lead to suboptimal performance. To tackle this issue, we study a novel problem of few-shot node classification with extremely weak supervision and propose a principled framework X-FNC under the prevalent meta-learning framework. Specifically, our goal is to accumulate meta-knowledge across different meta-training tasks with extremely weak supervision and generalize such knowledge to meta-test tasks. To address the challenges resulting from extremely scarce labeled nodes, we propose two essential modules to obtain pseudo-labeled nodes as extra references and effectively learn from extremely limited supervision information. We further conduct extensive experiments on four node classification datasets with extremely weak supervision to validate the superiority of our framework compared to the state-of-the-art baselines. 
    more » « less