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We study the following problem, which to our knowledge has been addressed only partially in the literature and not in full generality. An agent observes two players play a zero-sum game that is known to the players but not the agent. The agent observes the actions and state transitions of their game play, but not rewards. The players may play either op-timally (according to some Nash equilibrium) or according to any other solution concept, such as a quantal response equilibrium. Following these observations, the agent must recommend a policy for one player, say Player 1. The goal is to recommend a policy that is minimally exploitable un-der the true, but unknown, game. We take a Bayesian ap-proach. We establish a likelihood function based on obser-vations and the specified solution concept. We then propose an approach based on Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC), which allows us to approximately sample games from the agent’s posterior belief distribution. Once we have a batch of independent samples from the posterior, we use linear pro-gramming and backward induction to compute a policy for Player 1 that minimizes the sum of exploitabilities over these games. This approximates the policy that minimizes the ex-pected exploitability under the full distribution. Our approach is also capable of handling counterfactuals, where known modifications are applied to the unknown game. We show that our Bayesian MCMC-based technique outperforms two other techniques—one based on the equilibrium policy of the maximum-probability game and the other based on imitation of observed behavior—on all the tested stochastic game envi-ronments.

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