This content will become publicly available on February 22, 2024
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
ABSTRACT The largest earthquake since 1954 to strike the state of Nevada, United States, ruptured on 15 May 2020 along the Monte Cristo range of west-central Nevada. The Mw 6.5 event involved predominantly left-lateral strike-slip faulting with minor normal components on three aligned east–west-trending faults that vary in strike by 23°. The kinematic rupture process is determined by joint inversion of Global Navigation Satellite Systems displacements, Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data, regional strong motions, and teleseismic P and SH waves, with the three-fault geometry being constrained by InSAR surface deformation observations, surface ruptures, and relocated aftershock distributions. The average rupture velocity is 1.5 km/s, with a peak slip of ∼1.6 m and a ∼20 s rupture duration. The seismic moment is 6.9×1018 N·m. Complex surface deformation is observed near the fault junction, with a deep near-vertical fault and a southeast-dipping fault at shallow depth on the western segment, along which normal-faulting aftershocks are observed. There is a shallow slip deficit in the Nevada ruptures, probably due to the immature fault system. The causative faults had not been previously identified and are located near the transition from the Walker Lane belt to the Basin and Range province. The east–west geometry of the system is consistent with the eastward extension of the Mina Deflection of the Walker Lane north of the White Mountains.more » « less
null (Ed.)ABSTRACT The 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence culminated in the largest seismic event in California since the 1999 Mw 7.1 Hector Mine earthquake. Here, we combine geodetic and seismic data to study the rupture process of both the 4 July Mw 6.4 foreshock and the 6 July Mw 7.1 mainshock. The results show that the Mw 6.4 foreshock rupture started on a northwest-striking right-lateral fault, and then continued on a southwest-striking fault with mainly left-lateral slip. Although most moment release during the Mw 6.4 foreshock was along the southwest-striking fault, slip on the northwest-striking fault seems to have played a more important role in triggering the Mw 7.1 mainshock that happened ∼34 hr later. Rupture of the Mw 7.1 mainshock was characterized by dominantly right-lateral slip on a series of overall northwest-striking fault strands, including the one that had already been activated during the nucleation of the Mw 6.4 foreshock. The maximum slip of the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake was ∼5 m, located at a depth range of 3–8 km near the Mw 7.1 epicenter, corresponding to a shallow slip deficit of ∼20%–30%. Both the foreshock and mainshock had a relatively low-rupture velocity of ∼2 km/s, which is possibly related to the geometric complexity and immaturity of the eastern California shear zone faults. The 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake produced significant stress perturbations on nearby fault networks, especially along the Garlock fault segment immediately southwest of the 2019 Ridgecrest rupture, in which the coulomb stress increase was up to ∼0.5 MPa. Despite the good coverage of both geodetic and seismic observations, published coseismic slip models of the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence show large variations, which highlight the uncertainty of routinely performed earthquake rupture inversions and their interpretation for underlying rupture processes.more » « less
On 4 and 6 July 2019, two large strike‐slip earthquakes with
W‐phase moment magnitudes M WW6.5 (foreshock) and M WW7.1 (mainshock) struck the Eastern California Shear Zone, northeast of Ridgecrest. The faulting geometry and kinematic coseismic slip distribution of both events are determined by jointly inverting seismological and geodetic observations guided by aftershock and surface rupture locations. The foreshock ruptured two orthogonal faults with a prominent L‐shaped geometry with maximum slip of ~1.1 m on the NE‐SW segment. The mainshock faulting extended NW‐SE along several primary fault segments that straddle the foreshock slip. The surface rupture and slip model indicate mostly near‐horizontal strike‐slip motion with maximum slip of ~3.7 m, but there is a localized vertical dip‐slip motion. Both the foreshock and mainshock ruptures terminate in regions of complex surface offsets. High aftershock productivity and low rupture velocity may be the result of rupture of a relatively immature fault system.
Abstract On 19 September 2022, a major earthquake struck the northwestern Michoacán segment along the Mexican subduction zone. A slip model is obtained that satisfactorily explains geodetic, teleseismic, and tsunami observations of the 2022 event. The preferred model has a compact large-slip patch that extends up-dip and northwestward from the hypocenter and directly overlaps a 1973 Mw 7.6 rupture. Slip is concentrated offshore and below the coast at depths from 10 to 30 km with a peak value of ∼2.9 m, and there is no detected coseismic slip near the trench. The total seismic moment is 3.1×1020 N·m (Mw 7.6), 72% of which is concentrated in the first 30 s. Most aftershocks are distributed in an up-dip area of the mainshock that has small coseismic slip, suggesting near-complete strain release in the large-slip patch. Teleseismic P waveforms of the 2022 and 1973 earthquakes are similar in duration and complexity with high cross-correlation coefficients of 0.68–0.98 for long P to PP signal time windows, indicating that the 2022 earthquake is a quasi-repeat of the 1973 earthquake, possibly indicating persistent frictional properties. Both the events produced more complex P waveforms than comparable size events along Guerrero and Oaxaca, reflecting differences in patchy locking of the Mexican megathrust.more » « less
We image the rupture process of the 2021 Mw 7.4 Maduo, Tibet earthquake using slowness‐enhanced back‐projection (BP) and joint finite fault inversion, which combines teleseismic broadband body waves, long‐period (166–333 s) seismic waves, and 3D ground displacements from radar satellites. The results reveal a left‐lateral strike‐slip rupture, propagating bilaterally on a 160 km long north‐dipping sub‐vertical fault system that bifurcates near its east end. About 80% of the total seismic moment occurs on the asperities shallower than 10 km, with a peak slip of 5.7 m. To simultaneously match the observed long‐period seismic waves and static displacements, potential deep slip is required, despite a tradeoff with the rigidity of the shallow crust. The deep slip existence, local crustal rigidity, and synthetic long‐period Earth response for Tibet earthquakes thus deserve further investigation. The WNW branch ruptures ∼75 km at ∼2.7 km/s, while the ESE branch ruptures ∼85 km at ∼3 km/s, though super‐shear rupture propagation possibly occurs during the ESE propagation from 12 to 20 s. Synthetic BP tests confirm overall sub‐shear rupture speeds and reveal a previously undocumented limitation caused by the signal interference between two bilateral branches. The stress analysis on the forks of the fault demonstrates that the pre‐compression inclination, rupture speed, and branching angle could explain the branching behavior on the eastern fork.