skip to main content

Title: Spatial Mapping of Hot‐Spots at Lateral Heterogeneities in Monolayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

Lateral heterogeneities in atomically thin 2D materials such as in‐plane heterojunctions and grain boundaries (GBs) provide an extrinsic knob for manipulating the properties of nano‐ and optoelectronic devices and harvesting novel functionalities. However, these heterogeneities have the potential to adversely affect the performance and reliability of the 2D devices through the formation of nanoscopic hot‐spots. In this report, scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is utilized to map the spatial distribution of the temperature rise within monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) devices upon dissipating a high electrical power through a lateral interface. The results directly demonstrate that lateral heterojunctions between MoS2and WS2do not largely impact the distribution of heat dissipation, while GBs of MoS2appreciably localize heating in the device. High‐resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy reveals that the atomic structure is nearly flawless around heterojunctions but can be quite defective near GBs. The results suggest that the interfacial atomic structure plays a crucial role in enabling uniform charge transport without inducing localized heating. Establishing such structure–property‐processing correlation provides a better understanding of lateral heterogeneities in 2D TMD systems which is crucial in the design of future all‐2D electronic circuitry with enhanced functionalities, lifetime, and performance.

more » « less
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Materials
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    2D transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have exhibited strong application potentials in new emerging electronics because of their atomic thin structure and excellent flexibility, which is out of field of tradition silicon technology. Similar to 3D p–n junctions, 2D p–n heterojunctions by laterally connecting TMDs with different majority charge carriers (electrons and holes), provide ideal platform for current rectifiers, light‐emitting diodes, diode lasers and photovoltaic devices. Here, growth and electrical studies of atomic thin high‐quality p–n heterojunctions between molybdenum diselenide (MoSe2) and tungsten diselenide (WSe2) by one‐step chemical vapor deposition method are reported. These p–n heterojunctions exhibit high built‐in potential (≈0.7 eV), resulting in large current rectification ratio without any gate control for diodes, and fast response time (≈6 ms) for self‐powered photodetectors. The simple one‐step growth and electrical studies of monolayer lateral heterojunctions open up the possibility to use TMD heterojunctions for functional devices.

    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    Manipulation and structural modifications of 2D materials for nanoelectronic and nanofluidic applications remain obstacles to their industrial‐scale implementation. Here, it is demonstrated that a 30 kV focused ion beam can be utilized to engineer defects and tailor the atomic, optoelectronic, and structural properties of monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs). Aberration‐corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to reveal the presence of defects with sizes from the single atom to 50 nm in molybdenum (MoS2) and tungsten disulfide (WS2) caused by irradiation doses from 1013to 1016ions cm−2. Irradiated regions across millimeter‐length scales of multiple devices are sampled and analyzed at the atomic scale in order to obtain a quantitative picture of defect sizes and densities. Precise dose value calculations are also presented, which accurately capture the spatial distribution of defects in irradiated 2D materials. Changes in phononic and optoelectronic material properties are probed via Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The dependence of defect properties on sample parameters such as underlying substrate and TMD material is also investigated. The results shown here lend the way to the fabrication and processing of TMD nanodevices.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Gate‐/wavelength‐dependent scanning photocurrent measurements of black phosphorous (BP)–MoS2heterojunctions have shown that the Schottky barrier at the MoS2–metal interface plays an important role in the photoresponse dynamics of the heterojunction. When the Fermi level is close to the conduction band of MoS2, photoexcited carriers can tunnel through the narrow depletion region at the MoS2–metal interface, leading to a short response time of 13 µs regardless of the incident laser wavelength. This response speed is comparable or better than that of other few‐layer BP–MoS2heterojunctions. Conversely, when the MoS2channel is in the off‐state, the resulting sizeable Schottky barrier and depletion width make it difficult for photoexcited carriers to overcome the barrier. This significantly delays the carrier transit time and thus the photoresponse speed, leading to a wavelength‐dependent response time since the photoexcited carriers induced by short wavelength photons have a higher probability to overcome the Schottky barrier at the MoS2–metal interface than long wavelength photons. These studies not only shed light on the fundamental understanding of photoresponse dynamics in BP–MoS2heterojunctions, but also open new avenues for engineering the interfaces between 2D materials and metal contacts to reduce the response time of 2D optoelectronics.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Non‐volatile resistive switching (NVRS) is a widely available effect in transitional metal oxides, colloquially known as memristors, and of broad interest for memory technology and neuromorphic computing. Until recently, NVRS was not known in other transitional metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), an important material class owing to their atomic thinness enabling the ultimate dimensional scaling. Here, various monolayer or few‐layer 2D materials are presented in the conventional vertical structure that exhibit NVRS, including TMDs (MX2, M=transitional metal, e.g., Mo, W, Re, Sn, or Pt; X=chalcogen, e.g., S, Se, or Te), TMD heterostructure (WS2/MoS2), and an atomically thin insulator (h‐BN). These results indicate the universality of the phenomenon in 2D non‐conductive materials, and feature low switching voltage, large ON/OFF ratio, and forming‐free characteristic. A dissociation–diffusion–adsorption model is proposed, attributing the enhanced conductance to metal atoms/ions adsorption into intrinsic vacancies, a conductive‐point mechanism supported by first‐principle calculations and scanning tunneling microscopy characterizations. The results motivate further research in the understanding and applications of defects in 2D materials.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    The oxidation mechanism of atomically thin molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) plays a critical role in its nanoelectronics, optoelectronics, and catalytic applications, where devices often operate in an elevated thermal environment. In this study, we systematically investigate the oxidation of mono- and few-layer MoS2flakes in the air at temperatures ranging from 23 °C to 525 °C and relative humidities of 10%–60% by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), Raman spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our study reveals the formation of a uniform nanometer-thick physical adsorption layer on the surface of MoS2, which is attributed to the adsorption of ambient moisture. This physical adsorption layer acts as a thermal shield of the underlying MoS2lattice to enhance its thermal stability and can be effectively removed by an AFM tip scanning in contact mode or annealing at 400 °C. Our study shows that high-temperature thermal annealing and AFM tip-based cleaning result in chemical adsorption on sulfur vacancies in MoS2, leading to p-type doping. Our study highlights the importance of humidity control in ensuring reliable and optimal performance for MoS2-based electronic and electrochemical devices and provides crucial insights into the surface engineering of MoS2, which are relevant to the study of other two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenide materials and their applications.

    more » « less