skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on May 10, 2024

Title: Near‐IR Fluorescent Recognition of Arginine: High Chemoselectivity and Enantioselectivity Promoted by La 3+

The first near IR fluorescent probe for the chemoselective and enantioselective recognition of arginine in aqueous solution is reported in this work. This probe, made of a 1,1’‐binaphthyl‐based chiral aldehyde unit and a rhodamine‐based near IR chromophore, in combination with La3+exhibits highly chemoselective as well as enantioselective fluorescent enhancement with arginine at λ=764 nm upon excitation at λ=690 nm. Little or no fluorescent response is observed toward the chirality miss‐matched arginine enantiomer or other common amino acids and their enantiomers. This probe also allows visual discrimination of the arginine enantiomers because of its fast and distinct color change upon interaction with the substrate.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. The enantiomers of chiral amino acids play versatile roles in biological systems including humans. They are also very useful in the asymmetric synthesis of diverse chiral organic compounds. Therefore, identifying a specific amino acid and distinguishing it from its enantiomer are of great importance. Although significant progress has been made in the development of fluorescent probes for amino acids, most of them are not capable of conducting simultaneous chemoselective and enantioselective detection of a specific amino acid enantiomer. In this article, several fluorescent probes have been designed and synthesized for chemoselective as well as enantioselective recognition of certain amino acid enantiomers. ( S )-1 shows greatly enhanced fluorescence in the presence of l -glutamic acid and l -aspartic acid, but produces no or little fluorescence response toward their opposite enantiomers and other amino acids. ( R )-4 in combination with Zn 2+ shows greatly enhanced fluorescence in the presence of l -serine. ( S )-6 is designed for the selective recognition of histidine. Micelles made of an amphiphilic diblock copolymer are used to encapsulate the water-insoluble compound ( S )-8 which shows chemoselective as well as enantioselective fluorescence enhancement with l -lysine in the presence of Zn 2+ in aqueous solution. The same micelles are also used to encapsulate several ( S )-1,1′-binaphthyl-based monoaldehydes ( S )-10 for the chemoselective and enantioselective fluorescence recognition of l -tryptophan in the presence of Zn 2+ in aqueous solution. These findings have demonstrated that highly selective fluorescence identification of a specific amino acid enantiomer can be achieved by incorporating certain functional groups at the designated locations of the 1,1′-binaphthyls. The binaphthyl core structure of these probes provides both a chirality source and highly tunable fluorescence properties. Matching the structure and chirality of these probes with those of the specific amino acid enantiomers can generate structurally rigid reaction products and give rise to greatly enhanced fluorescence. The strategies of this work can be further expanded to develop fluorescent probes for the specific identification of many amino acids of interest. This should facilitate the analysis of chiral amino acids in various applications. The outlook of this research and its comparison with other methods are also discussed. 
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    DNA‐templated silver nanoclusters (AgNC@DNA) are a novel type of nanomaterial with advantageous optical properties. Only a few atoms in size, the fluorescence of nanoclusters can be tuned using DNA overhangs. In this study, we explored the properties of AgNCs manufactured on a short single‐stranded (dC)12when adjacent G‐rich sequences (dGN, withN = 3–15) were added. The ‘red’ emission of AgNC@dC12with λMAX = 660 nm dramatically changed upon the addition of a G‐rich overhang with NG = 15. The pattern of the emission–excitation matrix (EEM) suggested the emergence of two new emissive states at λMAX = 575 nm and λMAX = 710 nm. The appearance of these peaks provides an effective way to design biosensors capable of detecting specific nucleic acid sequences with low fluorescence backgrounds. We used this property to construct an NA‐based switch that brings AgNC and the G overhang near one another, turning ‘ON’ the new fluorescence peaks only when a specific miRNA sequence is present. Next, we tested this detection switch on miR‐371, which is overexpressed in prostate cancer. The results presented provide evidence that this novel fluorescent switch is both sensitive and specific with a limit of detection close to 22 picomoles of the target miR‐371 molecule.

    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    Although alkyl azides are known to typically form imines under direct irradiation, the product formation mechanism remains ambiguous as some alkyl azides also yield the corresponding triplet alkylnitrenes at cryogenic temperatures. The photoreactivity of 3‐azido‐3‐phenyl‐3H‐isobenzofuran‐1‐one (1) was investigated in solution and in cryogenic matrices. Irradiation (λ = 254 nm) of azide 1 in acetonitrile yielded a mixture of imines 2 and 3. Monitoring of the reaction progress using UV‐Vis absorption spectroscopy revealed an isosbestic point at 210 nm, indicating that the reaction proceeded cleanly. Similar results were observed for the photoreactivity of azide 1 in a frozen 2‐methyltetrahydrofuran (mTHF) matrix. Irradiation of azide 1 in an argon matrix at 6 K resulted in the disappearance of its IR bands with the concurrent appearance of IR bands corresponding to imines 2 and 3. Thus, it was theorized that azide 1 forms imines 2 and 3 via a concerted mechanism from its singlet excited state or through singlet alkylnitrene11N, which does not intersystem cross to its triplet configuration. This proposal was supported by CASPT2 calculations on a model system, which suggested that the energy gap between the singlet and triplet configurations of alkylnitrene 1N is 33 kcal/mol, thus making intersystem crossing inefficient.

    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Efficient broadband near‐infrared (NIR) emitting materials with an emission peak centered above 830 nm are crucial for smart NIR spectroscopy‐based technologies. However, the development of these materials remains a significant challenge. Herein, a series of design rules rooted in computational methods and empirical crystal‐chemical analysis is applied to identify a new Cr3+‐substituted phosphor. The compound GaTaO4:Cr3+emerged from this study is based on the material's high structural rigidity, suitable electronic environment, and relatively weak electron–phonon coupling. Irradiating this new phosphor with 460 nm blue light generates a broadband NIR emission (λem,max = 840 nm) covering the 700–1100 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with a full width at half maximum of 140 nm. The phase has a high internal quantum yield of 91% and excellent thermal stability, maintaining 85% of the room temperature emission intensity at 100 °C. Fabricating a phosphor‐converted light‐emitting diode device shows that the new compound generates an intense NIR emission (178 mW at 500 mA) with photoelectric efficiency of 6%. This work not only provides a new material that has the potential for next‐generation high‐power NIR applications but also highlights a set of design rules capable of developing highly efficient long‐wavelength broadband NIR materials.

    more » « less
  5. Abstract

    Even in the 21st century, prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer‐related death for men. Since a normal prostate gland has a high ZnIIcontent and there are huge differences in ZnIIcontent between healthy and malignant prostate cancer cells, mobile zinc can be used as a biomarker for prostate cancer prediction. A highly efficient surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) probe using ap‐(imidazole)azo)benzenethiol attached gold nanoparticle as a Raman reporter, which has the capability to identify prostate cancer cells based on ZnIIsensing, has been designed. A facile synthesis, characterization and evaluation of a ZnIIsensing Raman probe are described. Reported data indicate that after binding with ZnII, Raman reporter attached to a gold nanoparticle forms an assembly structure, which allows selective detection of ZnIIeven at 100 ppt concentration. Theoretical full‐wave finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD) simulations have been used to understand the enhancement of the SERS signal. The SERS probe is highly promising for in vivo sensing of cancer, where near‐IR light can be easily used to avoid tissue autofluorescence and to enhance tissue penetration depth. Reported data show that the SERS probe can distinguish metastatic cancer cells from normal prostate cells very easily with a sensitivity as low as 5 cancer cells mL−1. The probe can be used as a chemical toolkit for determining mobile ZnIIconcentrations in biological samples.

    more » « less