Restoration of foundation species promises to reverse environmental degradation and return lost ecosystem services, but a lack of standardized evaluation across projects limits understanding of recovery, especially in marine systems. Oyster reefs are restored to reverse massive global declines and reclaim valuable ecosystem services, but the success of these projects has not been systematically and comprehensively quantified. We synthesized data on ecosystem services associated with oyster restoration from 245 pairs of restored and degraded reefs and 136 pairs of restored and reference reefs across 3500 km of U.S. Gulf of Mexico and Atlantic coastlines. On average, restoration was associated with a 21‐fold increase in oyster production (mean log response ratio = 3.08 [95% confidence interval: 2.58–3.58]), 34–97% enhancement of habitat provisioning (mean community abundance = 0.51 [0.41–0.61], mean richness = 0.29 [0.19–0.39], and mean biomass = 0.69 [0.39–0.99]), 54% more nitrogen removal (mean = 0.43 [0.13–0.73]), and 89–95% greater sediment nutrients (mean = 0.67 [0.27–1.07]) and organic matter (mean = 0.64 [0.44–0.84]) relative to degraded habitats. Moreover, restored reefs matched reference reefs for these ecosystem services. Our results support the continued and expanded use of oyster restoration to enhance ecosystem services of degraded coastal systems and match many functions provided by reference reefs.
Restoration aims to reverse the global declines of foundation species, but it is unclear how project attributes, the physical setting, and antecedent conditions affect restoration success. In coastal seas worldwide, oyster reef restoration is increasing to counter historical habitat destruction and associated declines in fisheries production and biodiversity. Yet, restoration outcomes are highly variable and the factors that enhance oyster production and nekton abundance and diversity on restored reefs are unresolved. To quantify the drivers of oyster restoration success, we used meta‐analysis to synthesize data from 158 restored reefs paired with unstructured habitats along the United States Gulf and Atlantic coasts. The average recovery of oyster production was 65% greater in subtidal (vs. intertidal) zones, 173% greater in polyhaline (vs. mesohaline) environments and increased with tidal range, demonstrating that physical conditions can strongly influence the restoration success of foundation species. Additionally, restoration increased the relative abundance and richness of nektonic fishes and invertebrates over time as reefs aged (at least 8 years post‐construction). Thus, the restoration benefits for provisioning habitat and enhancing biodiversity accrue over time, highlighting that restoration projects need multiple years to maximize ecosystem functions. Furthermore, long‐term monitoring of restored and control sites is needed to assess restoration outcomes and associated drivers. Last, our work reveals data constraints for several potential drivers of restoration outcomes, including reef construction material, reef dimensions, harvest pressure and disease prevalence. More experimental and observational studies are needed to target these factors and measure them with consistent methods across studies. Our findings indicate that the assisted recovery of foundation species yields several enhancements to ecosystem services, but such benefits are mediated by time and environmental conditions.more » « less
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Ecological Applications
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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