skip to main content

Title: Edge Selections in Bilinear Dynamic Networks
We develop some basic principles for the design and robustness analysis of a continuous-time bilinear dynamical network, where an attacker can manipulate the strength of the interconnections/edges between some of the agents/nodes. We formulate the edge protection optimization problem of picking a limited number of attack-free edges and minimizing the impact of the attack over the bilinear dynamical network. In particular, the H2-norm of bilinear systems is known to capture robustness and performance properties analogous to its linear counterpart and provides valuable insights for identifying which edges are most sensitive to attacks. The exact optimization problem is combinatorial in the number of edges, and brute-force approaches show poor scalability. However, we show that the H2-norm as a cost function is supermodular and, therefore, allows for efficient greedy approximations of the optimal solution. We illustrate and compare the effectiveness of our theoretical findings via numerical simulation  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2052455 2208182 2121121
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control
Page Range / eLocation ID:
1 to 8
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. We consider the problems of asymptotic stability and robustness in large-scale second-order consensus networks and vehicle platoons in the discrete-time domain. First, we develop a graph-theoretic methodology to design the state feedback law for the second-order consensus networks and vehicle platoons in a discrete-time framework. We analyze the stability of such networks based on algebraic properties of the Laplacian matrices of underlying graphs and each vehicle’s update cycle (also known as the time step). We further provide a necessary and sufficient condition of stability of a linear second-order consensus network in the discrete-time domain. Moreover, we evaluate the robustness of the consensus networks by employing the expected value of the steady-state dispersion of the state of the entire network, also known as squared H2-norm, as a performance measure. We show the connection between performance measures with respect to network size, connectivity, and the update cycle. The main contribution of this work is that we provide a formal framework to quantify the relation between scaling performance measures and restrictions of the vehicles’ update cycles. Specifically, we show that denser networks (i.e., networks with more communications/edges) require faster agents (i.e., smaller update cycles) to outperform or achieve the same level of robustness as sparse networks (i.e., networks with fewer communications/edges). 
    more » « less
  2. Recent advances in machine learning enable wider applications of prediction models in cyber-physical systems. Smart grids are increasingly using distributed sensor settings for distributed sensor fusion and information processing. Load forecasting systems use these sensors to predict future loads to incorporate into dynamic pricing of power and grid maintenance. However, these inference predictors are highly complex and thus vulnerable to adversarial attacks. Moreover, the adversarial attacks are synthetic norm-bounded modifications to a limited number of sensors that can greatly affect the accuracy of the overall predictor. It can be much cheaper and effective to incorporate elements of security and resilience at the earliest stages of design. In this paper, we demonstrate how to analyze the security and resilience of learning-based prediction models in power distribution networks by utilizing a domain-specific deep-learning and testing framework. This framework is developed using DeepForge and enables rapid design and analysis of attack scenarios against distributed smart meters in a power distribution network. It runs the attack simulations in the cloud backend. In addition to the predictor model, we have integrated an anomaly detector to detect adversarial attacks targeting the predictor. We formulate the stealthy adversarial attacks as an optimization problem to maximize prediction loss while minimizing the required perturbations. Under the worst-case setting, where the attacker has full knowledge of both the predictor and the detector, an iterative attack method has been developed to solve for the adversarial perturbation. We demonstrate the framework capabilities using a GridLAB-D based power distribution network model and show how stealthy adversarial attacks can affect smart grid prediction systems even with a partial control of network. 
    more » « less
  3. The dynamic response of power grids to small transient events or persistent stochastic disturbances influences their stable operation. This paper studies the effect of topology on the linear time-invariant dynamics of power networks. For a variety of stability metrics, a unified framework based on the H2 -norm of the system is presented. The proposed framework assesses the robustness of power grids to small disturbances and is used to study the optimal placement of new lines on existing networks as well as the design of radial (tree) and meshed (loopy) topologies for new networks. Although the design task can be posed as a mixed-integer semidefinite program (MI-SDP), its performance does not scale well with network size. Using McCormick relaxation, the topology design problem can be reformulated as a mixed-integer linear program (MILP). To improve the computation time, graphical properties are exploited to provide tighter bounds on the continuous optimization variables. Numerical tests on the IEEE 39-bus feeder demonstrate the efficacy of the optimal topology in minimizing disturbances. 
    more » « less
  4. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are widely used in many applications. However, their robustness against adversarial attacks is criticized. Prior studies show that using unnoticeable modifications on graph topology or nodal features can significantly reduce the performances of GNNs. It is very challenging to design robust graph neural networks against poisoning attack and several efforts have been taken. Existing work aims at reducing the negative impact from adversarial edges only with the poisoned graph, which is sub-optimal since they fail to discriminate adversarial edges from normal ones. On the other hand, clean graphs from similar domains as the target poisoned graph are usually available in the real world. By perturbing these clean graphs, we create supervised knowledge to train the ability to detect adversarial edges so that the robustness of GNNs is elevated. However, such potential for clean graphs is neglected by existing work. To this end, we investigate a novel problem of improving the robustness of GNNs against poisoning attacks by exploring clean graphs. Specifically, we propose PA-GNN, which relies on a penalized aggregation mechanism that directly restrict the negative impact of adversarial edges by assigning them lower attention coefficients. To optimize PA-GNN for a poisoned graph, we design a meta-optimization algorithm that trains PA-GNN to penalize perturbations using clean graphs and their adversarial counterparts, and transfers such ability to improve the robustness of PA-GNN on the poisoned graph. Experimental results on four real-world datasets demonstrate the robustness of PA-GNN against poisoning attacks on graphs. 
    more » « less
  5. Recently, a broad class of linear delayed and ODE-PDEs systems was shown to have an equivalent representation using Partial Integral Equations (PIEs). In this paper, we use this PIE representation, combined with algorithms for convex optimization of Partial Integral (PI) operators to bound the H2-norm for input-output systems of this class. Specifically, the methods proposed here apply to delayed and ODE-PDE systems (including delayed PDE systems) in one or two spatial variables where the disturbance does not enter through the boundary. For such systems, we define a notion of H2-norm using an initial state-to-output framework and show that this notion reduces to more traditional concepts under the assumption of existence of a strongly continuous semigroup. Next, we consider input-output systems for which there exists a PIE representation and for such systems show that computing a minimal upper bound on the H2-norm of delayed and PDE systems can be equivalently formulated as a convex optimization problem subject to linear PI operator inequalities (LPIs). We convert, then, these optimization problems to Semi-Definite Programming (SDP) problems using the PIETOOLS toolbox. Finally, we apply the results to several numerical examples – focusing on time-delay systems (TDS) for which comparable H2 approximation results are available in the literature. The numerical results demonstrate the accuracy of the computed upper bound on the H2-norm. 
    more » « less