skip to main content


Title: The Auger spectrum of benzene
We present an ab initio computational study of the Auger electron spectrum of benzene. Auger electron spectroscopy exploits the Auger–Meitner effect, and although it is established as an analytic technique, the theoretical modeling of molecular Auger spectra from first principles remains challenging. Here, we use coupled-cluster theory and equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory combined with two approaches to describe the decaying nature of core-ionized states: (i) Feshbach–Fano resonance theory and (ii) the method of complex basis functions. The spectra computed with these two approaches are in excellent agreement with each other and also agree well with experimental Auger spectra of benzene. The Auger spectrum of benzene features two well-resolved peaks at Auger electron energies above 260 eV, which correspond to final states with two electrons removed from the 1 e 1 g and 3 e 2 g highest occupied molecular orbitals. At lower Auger electron energies, the spectrum is less well resolved, and the peaks comprise multiple final states of the benzene dication. In line with theoretical considerations, singlet decay channels contribute more to the total Auger intensity than the corresponding triplet decay channels.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2154482 1856342
NSF-PAR ID:
10420485
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Chemical Physics
Volume:
158
Issue:
6
ISSN:
0021-9606
Page Range / eLocation ID:
064109
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. States with core vacancies, which are commonly created by absorption of X-ray photons, can decay by a two-electron process in which one electron fills the core hole and the second one is ejected. These processes accompany many X-ray spectroscopies. Depending on the nature of the initial core-hole state and the decay valence-hole states, these processes are called Auger decay, intermolecular Coulomb decay, or electron-transfer-mediated decay. To connect many-body wavefunctions of the initial and final states with molecular orbital picture of the decay, we introduce a concept of natural Auger orbitals (NAOs). NAOs are obtained by two-step singular value decomposition of the two-body Dyson orbitals, reduced quantities that enter the expression of the decay rate in the Feshbach--Fano treatment. NAOs afford chemical insight and interpretation of the high-level ab intio calculations of Auger decay and related two-electron relaxation processes.

     
    more » « less
  2. Abstract

    A type-II InAs/AlAs$$_{0.16}$$0.16Sb$$_{0.84}$$0.84multiple-quantum well sample is investigated for the photoexcited carrier dynamics as a function of excitation photon energy and lattice temperature. Time-resolved measurements are performed using a near-infrared pump pulse, with photon energies near to and above the band gap, probed with a terahertz probe pulse. The transient terahertz absorption is characterized by a multi-rise, multi-decay function that captures long-lived decay times and a metastable state for an excess-photon energy of$$>100$$>100meV. For sufficient excess-photon energy, excitation of the metastable state is followed by a transition to the long-lived states. Excitation dependence of the long-lived states map onto a nearly-direct band gap ($$E{_g}$$Eg) density of states with an Urbach tail below$$E{_g}$$Eg. As temperature increases, the long-lived decay times increase$$<Eg, due to the increased phonon interaction of the unintentional defect states, and by phonon stabilization of the hot carriers$$>E{_g}$$>Eg. Additionally, Auger (and/or trap-assisted Auger) scattering above the onset of the plateau may also contribute to longer hot-carrier lifetimes. Meanwhile, the initial decay component shows strong dependence on excitation energy and temperature, reflecting the complicated initial transfer of energy between valence-band and defect states, indicating methods to further prolong hot carriers for technological applications.

     
    more » « less
  3. Abstract Inner-shell photoelectron spectroscopy provides an element-specific probe of molecular structure, as core-electron binding energies are sensitive to the chemical environment. Short-wavelength femtosecond light sources, such as Free-Electron Lasers (FELs), even enable time-resolved site-specific investigations of molecular photochemistry. Here, we study the ultraviolet photodissociation of the prototypical chiral molecule 1-iodo-2-methylbutane, probed by extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses from the Free-electron LASer in Hamburg (FLASH) through the ultrafast evolution of the iodine 4d binding energy. Methodologically, we employ electron-ion partial covariance imaging as a technique to isolate otherwise elusive features in a two-dimensional photoelectron spectrum arising from different photofragmentation pathways. The experimental and theoretical results for the time-resolved electron spectra of the 4d 3/2 and 4d 5/2 atomic and molecular levels that are disentangled by this method provide a key step towards studying structural and chemical changes from a specific spectator site. 
    more » « less
  4. We report a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of electron–molecule interactions using pyrrole as a model system. Experimental two-dimensional electron energy loss spectra (EELS) encode information about the vibrational states of the molecule as well as the position and structure of electronic resonances. The calculations using complex-valued extensions of equation-of-motion coupled-cluster theory (based on non-Hermitian quantum mechanics) facilitate the assignment of all major EELS features. We confirm the two previously described π resonances at about 2.5 and 3.5 eV (the calculations place these two states at 2.92 and 3.53 eV vertically and 2.63 and 3.27 eV adiabatically). The calculations also predict a low-lying resonance at 0.46 eV, which has a mixed character—of a dipole-bound state and σ* type. This resonance becomes stabilized at one quanta of the NH excitation, giving rise to the sharp feature at 0.9 eV in the corresponding EELS. Calculations of Franck–Condon factors explain the observed variations in the vibrational excitation patterns. The ability of theory to describe EELS provides a concrete illustration of the utility of non-Hermitian quantum chemistry, which extends such important concepts as potential energy surfaces and molecular orbitals to states embedded in the continuum. 
    more » « less
  5. Using the many-body expansion to predict crystal lattice energies (CLEs), a pleasantly parallel process, allows for flexibility in the choice of theoretical methods. Benchmark-level two-body contributions to CLEs of 23 molecular crystals have been computed using interaction energies of dimers with minimum inter-monomer separations (i.e., closest contact distances) up to 30 Å. In a search for ways to reduce the computational expense of calculating accurate CLEs, we have computed these two-body contributions with 15 different quantum chemical levels of theory and compared these energies to those computed with coupled-cluster in the complete basis set (CBS) limit. Interaction energies of the more distant dimers are easier to compute accurately and several of the methods tested are suitable as replacements for coupled-cluster through perturbative triples for all but the closest dimers. For our dataset, sub-kJ mol−1 accuracy can be obtained when calculating two-body interaction energies of dimers with separations shorter than 4 Å with coupled-cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations/CBS and dimers with separations longer than 4 Å with MP2.5/aug-cc-pVDZ, among other schemes, reducing the number of dimers to be computed with coupled-cluster by as much as 98%. 
    more » « less