skip to main content


Title: Mist Flow in Through-Tool Minimum Quantity Lubrication Drilling: Two-Phase Flow Simulation and Experimental Observation
Abstract Through-tool minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) drilling has been used in industry for decades, but little information is available on the coolant channel design and the effect on fluid distribution due to the inability of in-situ measurement. This study utilizes an Euler–Lagrange computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to uncover the two-phase flow behavior in MQL drilling. Air is the primary phase modeled as a compressible and turbulent flow. The lubricant droplets are simulated as discrete particles with a proper size distribution. Two-way coupling and droplet-wall interactions are both considered. The results show that the primary phase can reach velocities in the transonic region and is dependent on the helical path of the channel. In addition, most of the lubricant droplets (>95%) impact the channel wall to form fluid film instead of following the air stream. In the cutting zone, droplets can hardly reach the cutting edges in both circular and triangular channel shapes. Finally, a custom-made drilling testbed, along with a transparent work-material simulant, is used to observe and qualitatively validate these results.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
1760985
NSF-PAR ID:
10427444
Author(s) / Creator(s):
;
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Volume:
145
Issue:
3
ISSN:
1087-1357
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Mist distribution is a critical factor in through-tool minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) drilling since a small amount of lubricant is used. However, it has rarely been discussed because of the difficulty in measuring the mist flow experimentally. In this paper, an optical approach is developed to approximate the mist distribution by using high-speed images from multiple angles. Drill bits with two through-tool channel shapes (circle and triangle) and three helix angles (0°, 30°, and 45°) are 3D-printed for mist distribution analysis. Further, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is conducted to investigate the underlying physics behind mist flow variations. The results show that, in the circular channel, the mist is concentrated near the periphery; the low concentration region shifts away from the chisel point as the helix angle increases. For the triangular channel, the mist is concentrated near three vertices but is less affected by the helix angle. Furthermore, based on the CFD solution, high mist concentration tends to be in low-velocity regions and vice versa. This study confirms a noticeable difference of mist flow distribution in different through-tool channel designs. 
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    This study characterized airborne microdroplet diameters and size distribution from two commercially available lubricants A and B for internal minimum quantity lubrication (MQL). The effects of air pressure, oil channel size, physical properties of lubricants on the resultant microdroplets and through-tool MQL drilling performance were studied. Airborne microdroplet diameters were highly sensitive to the coolant channel sizes and air pressure. Cluster method was used to divide microdroplets into smaller clusters for comparison. Experimental data show that the average airborne microdroplet of lubricant B was larger than that of lubricant A at different air pressures and channel sizes. The contact angle of lubricant A was at least 10° less than that of lubricant B when depositing on glass or aluminium. High-speed imaging showed the tendency of more viscous lubricant B sticking to the drill tip, and higher pressure and longer time was required to atomize this viscous oil. Built-up-edges were less significant when drilling A380 aluminium with lubricant A. Due to high machinability of A380 aluminium, variation of hole diameter and hole cylindricity were minimal when drilling with different lubricants. Insignificant improvement in hole quality was observed when drilling with excessive amount of MQL lubricants or high concentration of lubricant C in flood coolant. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Abstract

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) drilling has been known for decades, but limited knowledge is available on two-channel through-tool MQL drilling due to the lack of accessibility to production systems. A common problem in MQL drilling is the absence of a rational approach to select the oil flow rate. The limited entry and exit area, and fixed energy available to the flow make the behavior complicated. This study leverages the capabilities in Ford’s manufacturing lab to abridge the research gap. Four different oil flow rates (0 ml/h, 15 ml/h, 30 ml/h and 60 ml/h) and two different drills (twist drill and straight drill) were used to find out the influence of oil flow rate on the cutting performance. Tool life, tool wear, cutting force and torque were monitored as the cutting performance indicators. It was concluded that, the common belief of higher oil flow rate providing better tool life, does not hold true for through-tool MQL drilling. The tool life for 30 ml/hr. oil flow rate appeared to be the highest compared to all the other cases for both the drills. Increasing the oil flow rate above 30 ml/hr. decreased the tool life. However, it is to be noted that the optimal oil flow rate values may be specific to the case.

     
    more » « less
  4. This research studied the effect of channel roughness on micro-droplet distributions in internal minimum quantity lubrication for effective machining. Mixtures of different oils and air were flown though internal channels with simulated different roughness: as fabricated, partially threaded, and fully threaded. The airborne droplets were collected, analyzed, and compared with simulated results by computational fluid dynamics. For low-viscous lubricant, the rough channel surface helped to break large droplets in the boundary layer into smaller droplets and reintroduce them into the main downstream flow. The opposite trend was found for the higher viscous lubricant. The study also performed chemical etching to roughen selected surfaces of carbide cutting tools. The synergy of hand and ultrasonic agitation successfully roughened a carbide surface within twelve minutes. Scanning electron microscopy examination showed deep etching that removed all grinding marks on a WC–Co cutting tool surface. 
    more » « less
  5. Oil flow distribution in Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) plays an important role in the efficiency of machining processes, but it remains challenging to measure experimentally. This paper presents a new method to measure the oil flow distribution in through-channel drill bits based on the reflected light intensity. Measurements were conducted from multiple angles in order to map the flow distribution across the channel cross-sectional area. The method is applied to drill bits of a circular cross-section channel and two helix angles, 0° and 30°. The results show that, for the 0° helix angle channel, the oil concentrates near the periphery of the channel, while for 30° helix angle channel, the oil concentrates towards the center of the drill point. Furthermore, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was conducted to compare with the measurement results, and it was observed that the oil distribution is correlated to the velocity field. Oil flow concentration is high in low velocity regions. Though preliminary, this study has concluded that the velocity field generated using single-phase CFD is a critical indicator for oil distribution in an MQL flow. 
    more » « less