skip to main content

Attention:

The NSF Public Access Repository (NSF-PAR) system and access will be unavailable from 5:00 PM ET until 11:00 PM ET on Friday, June 21 due to maintenance. We apologize for the inconvenience.


This content will become publicly available on August 4, 2024

Title: Federated Few-shot Learning
Federated Learning (FL) enables multiple clients to collaboratively learn a machine learning model without exchanging their own local data. In this way, the server can exploit the computational power of all clients and train the model on a larger set of data samples among all clients. Although such a mechanism is proven to be effective in various fields, existing works generally assume that each client preserves sufficient data for training. In practice, however, certain clients can only contain a limited number of samples (i.e., few-shot samples). For example, the available photo data taken by a specific user with a new mobile device is relatively rare. In this scenario, existing FL efforts typically encounter a significant performance drop on these clients. Therefore, it is urgent to develop a few-shot model that can generalize to clients with limited data under the FL scenario. In this paper, we refer to this novel problem as federated few-shot learning. Nevertheless, the problem remains challenging due to two major reasons: the global data variance among clients (i.e., the difference in data distributions among clients) and the local data insufficiency in each client (i.e., the lack of adequate local data for training). To overcome these two challenges, we propose a novel federated few-shot learning framework with two separately updated models and dedicated training strategies to reduce the adverse impact of global data variance and local data insufficiency. Extensive experiments on four prevalent datasets that cover news articles and images validate the effectiveness of our framework compared with the state-of-the-art baselines.  more » « less
Award ID(s):
2223769 2228534 2154962 2144209 2006844
NSF-PAR ID:
10434605
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
ACM
Date Published:
Format(s):
Medium: X
Location:
Long Beach CA USA
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. In Federated Learning (FL), clients independently train local models and share them with a central aggregator to build a global model. Impermissibility to access clients' data and collaborative training make FL appealing for applications with data-privacy concerns, such as medical imaging. However, these FL characteristics pose unprecedented challenges for debugging. When a global model's performance deteriorates, identifying the responsible rounds and clients is a major pain point. Developers resort to trial-and-error debugging with subsets of clients, hoping to increase the global model's accuracy or let future FL rounds retune the model, which are time-consuming and costly. We design a systematic fault localization framework, Fedde-bug,that advances the FL debugging on two novel fronts. First, Feddebug enables interactive debugging of realtime collaborative training in FL by leveraging record and replay techniques to construct a simulation that mirrors live FL. Feddebug'sbreakpoint can help inspect an FL state (round, client, and global model) and move between rounds and clients' models seam-lessly, enabling a fine-grained step-by-step inspection. Second, Feddebug automatically identifies the client(s) responsible for lowering the global model's performance without any testing data and labels-both are essential for existing debugging techniques. Feddebug's strengths come from adapting differential testing in conjunction with neuron activations to determine the client(s) deviating from normal behavior. Feddebug achieves 100% accuracy in finding a single faulty client and 90.3% accuracy in finding multiple faulty clients. Feddebug's interactive de-bugging incurs 1.2% overhead during training, while it localizes a faulty client in only 2.1% of a round's training time. With FedDebug,we bring effective debugging practices to federated learning, improving the quality and productivity of FL application developers. 
    more » « less
  2. Federated learning (FL) is a collaborative machine-learning (ML) framework particularly suited for ML models requiring numerous training samples, such as Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs), and Random Forest, in the context of various applications, e.g., next-word prediction and eHealth. FL involves various clients participating in the training process by uploading their local models to an FL server in each global iteration. The server aggregates these models to update a global model. The traditional FL process may encounter bottlenecks, known as the straggler problem, where slower clients delay the overall training time. This paper introduces the Latency-awarE Semi-synchronous client Selection and mOdel aggregation for federated learNing (LESSON) method. LESSON allows clients to participate at different frequencies: faster clients contribute more frequently, therefore mitigating the straggler problem and expediting convergence. Moreover, LESSON provides a tunable trade-off between model accuracy and convergence rate by setting varying deadlines. Simulation results show that LESSON outperforms two baseline methods, namely FedAvg and FedCS, in terms of convergence speed and maintains higher model accuracy compared to FedCS.

     
    more » « less
  3. Data-heterogeneous federated learning (FL) systems suffer from two significant sources of convergence error: 1) client drift error caused by performing multiple local optimization steps at clients, and 2) partial client participation error caused by the fact that only a small subset of the edge clients participate in every training round. We find that among these, only the former has received significant attention in the literature. To remedy this, we propose FedVARP, a novel variance reduction algorithm applied at the server that eliminates error due to partial client participation. To do so, the server simply maintains in memory the most recent update for each client and uses these as surrogate updates for the non-participating clients in every round. Further, to alleviate the memory requirement at the server, we propose a novel clustering-based variance reduction algorithm ClusterFedVARP. Unlike previously proposed methods, both FedVARP and ClusterFedVARP do not require additional computation at clients or communication of additional optimization parameters. Through extensive experiments, we show that FedVARP outperforms state-of-the-art methods, and ClusterFedVARP achieves performance comparable to FedVARP with much less memory requirements. 
    more » « less
  4. Deep neural networks have witnessed huge successes in many challenging prediction tasks and yet they often suffer from out-of-distribution (OoD) samples, misclassifying them with high confidence. Recent advances show promising OoD detection performance for centralized training, and however, OoD detection in federated learning (FL) is largely overlooked, even though many security sensitive applications such as autonomous driving and voice recognition authorization are commonly trained using FL for data privacy concerns. The main challenge that prevents previous state-of-the-art OoD detection methods from being incorporated to FL is that they require large amount of real OoD samples. However, in real-world scenarios, such large-scale OoD training data can be costly or even infeasible to obtain, especially for resource-limited local devices. On the other hand, a notorious challenge in FL is data heterogeneity where each client collects non-identically and independently distributed (non-iid) data. We propose to take advantage of such heterogeneity and turn the curse into a blessing that facilitates OoD detection in FL. The key is that for each client, non-iid data from other clients (unseen external classes) can serve as an alternative to real OoD samples. Specifically, we propose a novel Federated Out-of-Distribution Synthesizer (FOSTER), which learns a class-conditional generator to synthesize virtual external-class OoD samples, and maintains data confidentiality and communication efficiency required by FL. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art by 2.49%, 2.88%, 1.42% AUROC, and 0.01%, 0.89%, 1.74% ID accuracy, on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and STL10, respectively. 
    more » « less
  5. Deep neural networks have witnessed huge successes in many challenging prediction tasks and yet they often suffer from out-of-distribution (OoD) samples, misclassifying them with high confidence. Recent advances show promising OoD detection performance for centralized training, and however, OoD detection in federated learning (FL) is largely overlooked, even though many security sensitive applications such as autonomous driving and voice recognition authorization are commonly trained using FL for data privacy concerns. The main challenge that prevents previous state-of-the-art OoD detection methods from being incorporated to FL is that they require large amount of real OoD samples. However, in real-world scenarios, such large-scale OoD training data can be costly or even infeasible to obtain, especially for resource-limited local devices. On the other hand, a notorious challenge in FL is data heterogeneity where each client collects non-identically and independently distributed (non-iid) data. We propose to take advantage of such heterogeneity and turn the curse into a blessing that facilitates OoD detection in FL. The key is that for each client, non-iid data from other clients (unseen external classes) can serve as an alternative to real OoD samples. Specifically, we propose a novel Federated Out-of-Distribution Synthesizer (FOSTER), which learns a class-conditional generator to synthesize virtual external-class OoD samples, and maintains data confidentiality and communication efficiency required by FL. Experimental results show that our method outperforms the state-of-the-art by 2.49%, 2.88%, 1.42% AUROC, and 0.01%, 0.89%, 1.74% ID accuracy, on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and STL10, respectively. 
    more » « less