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Title: The ubiquity of carbon dredge-up in hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs as revealed by GALEX

The convective dredge-up of carbon from the interiors of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs has long been invoked to explain the presence of carbon absorption features in the spectra of cool DQ stars ($T_{\rm eff} \lt 10\,000\,$K). It has been hypothesized that this transport process is not limited to DQ white dwarfs and also operates, albeit less efficiently, in non-DQ hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs within the same temperature range. This non-DQ population is predominantly composed of DC white dwarfs, which exhibit featureless optical spectra. However, no direct observational evidence of ubiquitous carbon pollution in DC stars has thus far been uncovered. In this Letter, we analyse data from the Galaxy Evolution Explorer to reveal the photometric signature of ultraviolet carbon lines in most DC white dwarfs in the $8500\, {\rm K} \le T_{\rm eff} \le 10\,500\,$K temperature range. Our results show that the vast majority of hydrogen-deficient white dwarfs experience carbon dredge-up at some point in their evolution.

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Award ID(s):
1906379 2205736
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Oxford University Press
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society: Letters
Medium: X Size: p. L112-L116
["p. L112-L116"]
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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