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Title: Anomaly detection in aeronautics data with quantum-compatible discrete deep generative model

Deep generative learning cannot only be used for generating new data with statistical characteristics derived from input data but also for anomaly detection, by separating nominal and anomalous instances based on their reconstruction quality. In this paper, we explore the performance of three unsupervised deep generative models—variational autoencoders (VAEs) with Gaussian, Bernoulli, and Boltzmann priors—in detecting anomalies in multivariate time series of commercial-flight operations. We created two VAE models with discrete latent variables (DVAEs), one with a factorized Bernoulli prior and one with a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) with novel positive-phase architecture as prior, because of the demand for discrete-variable models in machine-learning applications and because the integration of quantum devices based on two-level quantum systems requires such models. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first that applies DVAE models to anomaly-detection tasks in the aerospace field. The DVAE with RBM prior, using a relatively simple—and classically or quantum-mechanically enhanceable—sampling technique for the evolution of the RBM’s negative phase, performed better in detecting anomalies than the Bernoulli DVAE and on par with the Gaussian model, which has a continuous latent space. The transfer of a model to an unseen dataset with the same anomaly but without re-tuning of hyperparameters or re-training noticeably impaired anomaly-detection performance, but performance could be improved by post-training on the new dataset. The RBM model was robust to change of anomaly type and phase of flight during which the anomaly occurred. Our studies demonstrate the competitiveness of a discrete deep generative model with its Gaussian counterpart on anomaly-detection problems. Moreover, the DVAE model with RBM prior can be easily integrated with quantum sampling by outsourcing its generative process to measurements of quantum states obtained from a quantum annealer or gate-model device.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Machine Learning: Science and Technology
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 035018
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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