skip to main content


Title: Anomaly detection in aeronautics data with quantum-compatible discrete deep generative model
Abstract

Deep generative learning cannot only be used for generating new data with statistical characteristics derived from input data but also for anomaly detection, by separating nominal and anomalous instances based on their reconstruction quality. In this paper, we explore the performance of three unsupervised deep generative models—variational autoencoders (VAEs) with Gaussian, Bernoulli, and Boltzmann priors—in detecting anomalies in multivariate time series of commercial-flight operations. We created two VAE models with discrete latent variables (DVAEs), one with a factorized Bernoulli prior and one with a restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) with novel positive-phase architecture as prior, because of the demand for discrete-variable models in machine-learning applications and because the integration of quantum devices based on two-level quantum systems requires such models. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first that applies DVAE models to anomaly-detection tasks in the aerospace field. The DVAE with RBM prior, using a relatively simple—and classically or quantum-mechanically enhanceable—sampling technique for the evolution of the RBM’s negative phase, performed better in detecting anomalies than the Bernoulli DVAE and on par with the Gaussian model, which has a continuous latent space. The transfer of a model to an unseen dataset with the same anomaly but without re-tuning of hyperparameters or re-training noticeably impaired anomaly-detection performance, but performance could be improved by post-training on the new dataset. The RBM model was robust to change of anomaly type and phase of flight during which the anomaly occurred. Our studies demonstrate the competitiveness of a discrete deep generative model with its Gaussian counterpart on anomaly-detection problems. Moreover, the DVAE model with RBM prior can be easily integrated with quantum sampling by outsourcing its generative process to measurements of quantum states obtained from a quantum annealer or gate-model device.

 
more » « less
NSF-PAR ID:
10440622
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Machine Learning: Science and Technology
Volume:
4
Issue:
3
ISSN:
2632-2153
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 035018
Format(s):
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Blind source separation (BSS) is commonly used in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data analysis. Recently, BSS models based on restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM), one of the building blocks of deep learning models, have been shown to improve brain network identification compared to conventional single matrix factorization models such as independent component analysis (ICA). These models, however, trained RBM on fMRI volumes, and are hence challenged by model complexity and limited training set. In this article, we propose to apply RBM to fMRI time courses instead of volumes for BSS. The proposed method not only interprets fMRI time courses explicitly to take advantages of deep learning models in latent feature learning but also substantially reduces model complexity and increases the scale of training set to improve training efficiency. Our experimental results based on Human Connectome Project (HCP) datasets demonstrated the superiority of the proposed method over ICA and the one that applied RBM to fMRI volumes in identifying task‐related components, resulted in more accurate and specific representations of task‐related activations. Moreover, our method separated out components representing intermixed effects between task events, which could reflect inherent interactions among functionally connected brain regions. Our study demonstrates the value of RBM in mining complex structures embedded in large‐scale fMRI data and its potential as a building block for deeper models in fMRI data analysis.

     
    more » « less
  2. null (Ed.)
    Smart grids integrate advanced information and communication technologies (ICTs) into traditional power grids for more efficient and resilient power delivery and management, but also introduce new security vulnerabilities that can be exploited by adversaries to launch cyber attacks, causing severe consequences such as massive blackout and infrastructure damages. Existing machine learning-based methods for detecting cyber attacks in smart grids are mostly based on supervised learning, which need the instances of both normal and attack events for training. In addition, supervised learning requires that the training dataset includes representative instances of various types of attack events to train a good model, which is sometimes hard if not impossible. This paper presents a new method for detecting cyber attacks in smart grids using PMU data, which is based on semi-supervised anomaly detection and deep representation learning. Semi-supervised anomaly detection only employs the instances of normal events to train detection models, making it suitable for finding unknown attack events. A number of popular semi-supervised anomaly detection algorithms were investigated in our study using publicly available power system cyber attack datasets to identify the best-performing ones. The performance comparison with popular supervised algorithms demonstrates that semi-supervised algorithms are more capable of finding attack events than supervised algorithms. Our results also show that the performance of semi-supervised anomaly detection algorithms can be further improved by augmenting with deep representation learning. 
    more » « less
  3. Lateral movement is a key stage of system compromise used by advanced persistent threats. Detecting it is no simple task. When network host logs are abstracted into discrete temporal graphs, the problem can be reframed as anomalous edge detection in an evolving network. Research in modern deep graph learning techniques has produced many creative and complicated models for this task. However, as is the case in many machine learning fields, the generality of models is of paramount importance for accuracy and scalability during training and inference. In this article, we propose a formalized approach to this problem with a framework we call Euler . It consists of a model-agnostic graph neural network stacked upon a model-agnostic sequence encoding layer such as a recurrent neural network. Models built according to the Euler framework can easily distribute their graph convolutional layers across multiple machines for large performance improvements. Additionally, we demonstrate that Euler -based models are as good, or better, than every state-of-the-art approach to anomalous link detection and prediction that we tested. As anomaly-based intrusion detection systems, our models efficiently identified anomalous connections between entities with high precision and outperformed all other unsupervised techniques for anomalous lateral movement detection. Additionally, we show that as a piece of a larger anomaly detection pipeline, Euler models perform well enough for use in real-world systems. With more advanced, yet still lightweight, alerting mechanisms ingesting the embeddings produced by Euler models, precision is boosted from 0.243, to 0.986 on real-world network traffic. 
    more » « less
  4. null (Ed.)
    A bstract Autoencoders have been proposed as a powerful tool for model-independent anomaly detection in high-energy physics. The operating principle is that events which do not belong to the space of training data will be reconstructed poorly, thus flagging them as anomalies. We point out that in a variety of examples of interest, the connection between large reconstruction error and anomalies is not so clear. In particular, for data sets with nontrivial topology, there will always be points that erroneously seem anomalous due to global issues. Conversely, neural networks typically have an inductive bias or prior to locally interpolate such that undersampled or rare events may be reconstructed with small error, despite actually being the desired anomalies. Taken together, these facts are in tension with the simple picture of the autoencoder as an anomaly detector. Using a series of illustrative low-dimensional examples, we show explicitly how the intrinsic and extrinsic topology of the dataset affects the behavior of an autoencoder and how this topology is manifested in the latent space representation during training. We ground this analysis in the discussion of a mock “bump hunt” in which the autoencoder fails to identify an anomalous “signal” for reasons tied to the intrinsic topology of n -particle phase space. 
    more » « less
  5. Multivariate time series anomaly detection has become an active area of research in recent years, with Deep Learning models outperforming previous approaches on benchmark datasets. Among reconstruction-based models, most previous work has focused on Variational Autoencoders and Generative Adversarial Networks. This work presents DGHL, a new family of generative models for time series anomaly detection, trained by maximizing the observed likelihood by posterior sampling and alternating back-propagation. A top-down Convolution Network maps a novel hierarchical latent space to time series windows, exploiting temporal dynamics to encode information efficiently. Despite relying on posterior sampling, it is computationally more efficient than current approaches, with up to 10x shorter training times than RNN based models. Our method outperformed current state-of-the-art models on four popular benchmark datasets. Finally, DGHL is robust to variable features between entities and accurate even with large proportions of missing values, settings with increasing relevance with the advent of IoT. We demonstrate the superior robustness of DGHL with novel occlusion experiments in this literature. Our code is available at https://github. com/cchallu/dghl. 
    more » « less