skip to main content

Title: Mitigation and In Situ Probing of Volume Expansion in Silicon/Graphene Hybrid Anodes for High‐Capacity, High‐Rate‐Capable Lithium‐Ion Batteries
  more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
 ;  ;  ;  
Publisher / Repository:
Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract

    Si‐based anodes with a stiff diamond structure usually suffer from sluggish lithiation/delithiation reaction due to low Li‐ion and electronic conductivity. Here, a novel ternary compound ZnSi2P3with a cation‐disordered sphalerite structure, prepared by a facile mechanochemical method, is reported, demonstrating faster Li‐ion and electron transport and greater tolerance to volume change during cycling than the existing Si‐based anodes. A composite electrode consisting of ZnSi2P3and carbon achieves a high initial Coulombic efficiency (92%) and excellent rate capability (950 mAh g−1at 10 A g−1) while maintaining superior cycling stability (1955 mAh g−1after 500 cycles at 300 mA g−1), surpassing the performance of most Si‐ and P‐based anodes ever reported. The remarkable electrochemical performance is attributed to the sphalerite structure that allows fast ion and electron transport and the reversible Li‐storage mechanism involving intercalation and conversion reactions. Moreover, the cation‐disordered sphalerite structure is flexible to ionic substitutions, allowing extension to a family of Zn(Cu)Si2+xP3solid solution anodes (x= 0, 2, 5, 10) with large capacity, high initial Coulombic efficiency, and tunable working potentials, representing attractive anode candidates for next‐generation, high‐performance, and low‐cost Li‐ion batteries.

    more » « less
  2. Applications of silicon as a high-performance anode material has been impeded by its low intrinsic conductivity and huge volume expansion (> 300%) during lithiation. To address these problems, nano-Si particles along with conductive coatings and engineered voids are often employed, but this results in high cost anodes. Here, we report a scalable synthesis method that can realize high specific capacity (~800 mAh g-1), ultrafast charge/discharge (at 8 A g-1 Si) and high initial Coulombic efficiency (~90%) with long cycle life (1000 cycles) at the same time. To achieve 1000 cycle stability, micron-sized Si particles are subjected to high-energy ball milling to create nanostructured Si building blocks with nano-channel shaped voids encapsulated inside a nitrogen (N)-doped carbon shell (termed as Si micro-reactor). The nano-channel voids inside a Si micro-reactor not only offer the space to accommodate the volume expansion of Si, but also provide fast pathways for Li ion diffusion into the center of the nanostructured Si core and thus ultrafast charge/discharge capability. The porous N-doped carbon shell helps to improve the conductivity while allowing fast Li ion transport and confining the volume expansion within the Si micro-reactor. Submicron-sized Si micro-reactors with limited specific surface area (35 m2 g-1) afford sufficient electrode/electrolyte interfacial area for fast lithiation/delithiation, leading to the specific capacity ranging from ~800 to 420 mAh g-1 under ultrafast charging conditions (8 A g-1), but not too much interfacial area for surface side reactions and thus high initial coulombic efficiency (~90%). Since Si micro-reactors with superior electrochemical properties are synthesized via an industrially scalable and eco-friendly method, they have the potential for practical applications in the future. 
    more » « less
    more » « less
  4. Abstract

    Organic materials with redox‐active oxygen functional groups are of great interest as electrode materials for alkali‐ion storage due to their earth‐abundant constituents, structural tunability, and enhanced energy storage properties. Herein, a hybrid carbon framework consisting of reduced graphene oxide and oxygen functionalized carbon quantum dots (CQDs) is developed via the one‐pot solvothermal reduction method, and a systematic study is undertaken to investigate its redox mechanism and electrochemical properties with Li‐, Na‐, and K‐ions. Due to the incorporation of CQDs, the hybrid cathode delivers consistent improvements in charge storage performance for the alkali‐ions and impressive reversible capacity (257 mAh g−1at 50 mA g−1), rate capability (111 mAh g−1at 1 A g−1), and cycling stability (79% retention after 10 000 cycles) with Li‐ion. Furthermore, density functional theory calculations uncover the CQD structure‐electrochemical reactivity trends for different alkali‐ion. The results provide important insights into adopting CQD species for optimal alkali‐ion storage.

    more » « less
  5. Deriving battery grade materials from natural sources is a key element to establishing sustainable energy storage technologies. In this work, we present the use of avocado peels as a sustainable source for conversion into hard carbon-based anodes for sodium ion batteries. The avocado peels are simply washed and dried then proceeded to a high temperature conversion step. Materials characterization reveals conversion of the avocado peels in high purity, highly porous hard carbon powders. When prepared as anode materials they show to the capability to reversibly store and release sodium ions. The hard carbon-based electrodes exhibit excellent cycling performance, namely, a reversible capacity of 352.55 mAh g−1at 0.05 A g−1, rate capability up to 86 mAh g−1at 3500 mA g−1, capacity retention of >90%, and 99.9% coulombic efficiencies after 500 cycles. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicated that the storage process was diffusion-limited, with diffusion coefficient of 8.62 × 10−8cm2s−1. This study demonstrates avocado derived hard carbon as a sustainable source that can provide excellent electrochemical and battery performance as anodes in sodium ion batteries.

    more » « less