There is a growing need to characterize the engineering material properties of the shallow subsurface in three dimensions for advanced engineering analyses. However, imaging the near-surface in three dimensions at spatial resolutions required for such purposes remains in its infancy and requires further study before it can be adopted into practice. To enable and accelerate research in this area, we present a large subsurface imaging data set acquired using a dense network of three-component (3C) nodal stations acquired in 2019 at the Garner Valley Downhole Array (GVDA) site. Acquisition of this data set involved the deployment of 196 stations positioned on a 14 × 14 grid with a 5 m spacing. The array was used to acquire active-source data generated by a vibroseis truck and an instrumented sledgehammer, and passive-wavefield data containing ambient noise. The active-source acquisition included 66 vibroseis and 209 instrumented sledgehammer source locations. Multiple source impacts were recorded at each source location to enable stacking of the recorded signals. The active-source recordings are provided in terms of both raw, uncorrected units of counts and corrected engineering units of meters per second. For each source impact, the force output from the vibroseis or instrumented sledgehammer was recorded and is provided in both raw counts and engineering units of kilonewtons. The passive-wavefield data include 28 h of ambient noise recorded over two nighttime deployments. The data set is shown to be useful for active-source and passive-wavefield three-dimensional imaging and other subsurface characterization techniques, which include horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios (HVSRs), multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), and microtremor array measurements (MAM).
This content will become publicly available on July 1, 2024
- Award ID(s):
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Page Range / eLocation ID:
- KS101 to KS112
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
More Like this
The dynamics of an oceanic storm track—where energy and enstrophy transfer between the mean flow and eddies—are investigated using observations from an eddy-rich region of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current downstream of the Shackleton Fracture Zone (SFZ) in Drake Passage. Four years of measurements by an array of current- and pressure-recording inverted echo sounders deployed between November 2007 and November 2011 are used to diagnose eddy–mean flow interactions and provide insight into physical mechanisms for these transfers. Averaged within the upper to mid-water column (400–1000-m depth) and over the 4-yr-record mean field, eddy potential energy [Formula: see text] is highest in the western part of the storm track and maximum eddy kinetic energy [Formula: see text] occurs farther away from the SFZ, shifting the proportion of eddy energies from [Formula: see text] to about 1 along the storm track. There are enhanced mean 3D wave activity fluxes [Formula: see text] immediately downstream of SFZ with strong horizontal flux vectors emanating northeast from this region. Similar patterns across composites of Polar Front and Subantarctic Front meander intrusions suggest the dynamics are set more so by the presence of the SFZ than by the eddy’s sign. A case study showing the evolution of a single eddy event, from 15 to 23 July 2010, highlights the storm-track dynamics in a series of snapshots. Consistently, explaining the eddy energetics pattern requires both horizontal and vertical components of W, implying the importance of barotropic and baroclinic processes and instabilities in controlling storm-track dynamics in Drake Passage.
Geotechnical characterization of marine sediments remains an outstanding challenge for offshore energy development, including foundation design and site selection of wind turbines and offshore platforms. We demonstrate that passive distributed acoustic sensing (DAS) surveys offer a new solution for shallow offshore geotechnical investigation where seafloor power or communications cables with fiber-optic links are available. We analyze Scholte waves recorded by DAS on a 42 km power cable in the Belgian offshore area of the southern North Sea. Ambient noise crosscorrelations converge acceptably with just over one hour of data, permitting multimodal Scholte wave dispersion measurement and shear-wave velocity inversion along the cable. We identify anomalous off-axis Scholte wave arrivals in noise crosscorrelations at high frequencies. Using a simple passive source imaging approach, we associate these arrivals with individual wind turbines, which suggests they are generated by structural vibrations. While many technological barriers must be overcome before ocean-bottom DAS can be applied to global seismic monitoring in the deep oceans, high-frequency passive surveys for high-resolution geotechnical characterization and monitoring in coastal regions are easily achievable today.more » « less
null (Ed.)Pile driving is used for constructing foundation supports for offshore structures. Underwater noise, induced by in-water pile driving, could adversely impact marine life near the piling location. Many studies have computed this noise in close ranges by using semi-analytical models and Finite Element Method (FEM) models. This work presents a Spectral Element Method (SEM) wave simulator as an alternative simulation tool to obtain close-range underwater piling noise in complex, fully three-dimensional, axially-asymmetric settings in the time domain for impacting force signals with high-frequency contents (e.g., frequencies greater than 1000[Formula: see text]Hz). The presented numerical results show that the flexibility of SEM can accommodate the axially-asymmetric geometry of a model, its heterogeneity, and fluid-solid coupling. We showed that there are multiple Mach Cones of different angles in fluid and sediment caused by the difference in wave speeds in fluid, a pile, and sediment. The angles of Mach Cones in our numerical results match those that are theoretically evaluated. A previous work 18 had shown that Mach Cone waves lead to intense amplitudes of underwater piling noise via a FEM simulation in an axis-symmetric setting. Since it modeled sediment as fluid with a larger wave speed than that of water, we examined if our SEM simulation, using solid sediment–fluid coupling, leads to additional Mach Cones. Because this work computes the shear wave in sediment and the downward-propagating shear wave in a pile, we present six Mach Cones in fluid and sediment induced by downward-propagating P- and S-waves in a pile in lieu of two previously-reported Mach Cones in fluid and sediment (modeled as fluid) induced by a downward-propagating P-wave in a pile. We also showed that the amplitudes of the close-range underwater noise are dependent on the cross-sectional geometry of a pile. In addition, when a pile is surrounded by a solid of an axially-asymmetric geometry, waves are reflected from the surface of the surrounding solid back to the fluid so that constructive and destructive interferences of waves take place in the fluid and affect the amplitude of the underwater piling noise.more » « less
Polycrystalline materials consist of grains (crystals) oriented at different angles resulting in a heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical behavior at that micro-length scale. In this study, a novel method is proposed for the first time to determine the [Formula: see text] crystal orientations of grains in a [Formula: see text] domain, using solely [Formula: see text] deformation fields. The grain boundaries are assumed to be unknown and delineated from the reconstructed changes in the crystallographic orientation. Further, the constitutive equations that describe the mechanical behavior of the domain in [Formula: see text] under plane stress conditions are derived, assuming that the material is transversely isotropic in 3D. Finite element based algorithms are utilized to discretize the inverse problem. The in-house written inverse problem solver is coupled with Matlab-based optimization scripts to solve for the mechanical property distributions. The performance of this method is tested at different noise levels with synthetic displacements that were used as measured data. The reconstructions deteriorate as the noise level is increased. This work presents a first milestone in the verification of this novel technology with synthetic data.more » « less