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Title: Weyl Fermions and broken symmetry phases of laterally confined 3 He films

Broken symmetries in topological condensed matter systems have implications for the spectrum of Fermionic excitations confined on surfaces or topological defects. The Fermionic spectrum of confined (quasi-2D)3He-A consists of branches of chiral edge states. The negative energy states are related to the ground-state angular momentum,Lz=(N/2), forN/2Cooper pairs. The power law suppression of the angular momentum,Lz(T)(N/2)[123(πT/Δ)2]for0TTc, in the fully gapped 2D chiral A-phase reflects the thermal excitation of the chiral edge Fermions. We discuss the effects of wave function overlap, and hybridization between edge states confined near opposing edge boundaries on the edge currents, ground-state angular momentum and ground-state order parameter of superfluid3He thin films. Under strong lateral confinement, the chiral A phase undergoes a sequence of phase transitions, first to a pair density wave (PDW) phase with broken translational symmetry atDc216ξ0. The PDW phase is described by a periodic array of chiral domains with alternating chirality, separated by domain walls. The period of PDW phase diverges as the confinement lengthDDc2. The PDW phase breaks time-reversal symmetry, translation invariance, but is invariant under the combination of time-reversal and translation by a one-half period of the PDW. The mass current distribution of the PDW phase reflects this combined symmetry, and originates from the spectra of edge Fermions and the chiral branches bound to the domain walls. Under sufficiently strong confinement a second-order transition occurs to the non-chiral ‘polar phase’ atDc19ξ0, in which a single p-wave orbital state of Cooper pairs is aligned along the channel.

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Author(s) / Creator(s):
Publisher / Repository:
IOP Publishing
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Article No. 495402
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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