skip to main content

Title: Photothermal heating of titanium nitride nanomaterials for fast and uniform laser warming of cryopreserved biomaterials

Titanium nitride (TiN) is presented as an alternative plasmonic nanomaterial to the commonly used gold (Au) for its potential use in laser rewarming of cryopreserved biomaterials. The rewarming of vitrified, glass like state, cryopreserved biomaterials is a delicate process as potential ice formation leads to mechanical stress and cracking on a macroscale, and damage to cell walls and DNA on a microscale, ultimately leading to the destruction of the biomaterial. The use of plasmonic nanomaterials dispersed in cryoprotective agent solutions to rapidly convert optical radiation into heat, generally supplied by a focused laser beam, proposes a novel approach to overcome this difficulty. This study focuses on the performance of TiN nanoparticles (NPs), since they present high thermal stability and are inexpensive compared to Au. To uniformly warm up the nanomaterial solutions, a beam splitting laser system was developed to heat samples from multiple sides with equal beam energy distribution. In addition, uniform laser warming requires equal distribution of absorption and scattering properties in the nanomaterials. Preliminary results demonstrated higher absorption but less scattering in TiN NPs than Au nanorods (GNRs). This led to the development of TiN clusters, synthetized by nanoparticle agglomeration, to increase the scattering cross-section of the material. Overall, this study analyzed the heating rate, thermal efficiency, and heating uniformity of TiN NPs and clusters in comparison to GNRs at different solution concentrations. TiN NPs and clusters demonstrated higher heating rates and solution temperatures, while only clusters led to a significantly improved uniformity in heating. These results highlight a promising alternative plasmonic nanomaterial to rewarm cryopreserved biological systems in the future.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. Abstract Incorporation of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in polymer matrix has been used to enhance and control dissolution and release of drugs, for targeted drug delivery, as antimicrobial agents, localized heat sources, and for unique optoelectronic applications. Gold NPs in particular exhibit a plasmonic response that has been utilized for photothermal energy conversion. Because plasmonic nanoparticles typically exhibit a plasmon resonance frequency similar to the visible light spectrum, they present as good candidates for direct photothermal conversion with enhanced solar thermal efficiency in these wavelengths. In our work, we have incorporated ∼3-nm-diameter colloidal gold (Au c ) NPs into electrospun polyethylene glycol (PEG) fibers to utilize the nanoparticle plasmonic response for localized heating and melting of the polymer to release medical treatment. Au c and Au c in PEG (PEG+Au c ) both exhibited a minimum reflectivity at 522 nm or approximately green wavelengths of light under ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. PEG+Au c ES fibers revealed a blue shift in minimum reflectivity at 504 nm. UV-Vis spectra were used to calculate the theoretical efficiency enhancement of PEG+Au c versus PEG alone, finding an approximate increase of 10 % under broad spectrum white light interrogation, and ∼14 % when illuminated with green light. Au c enhanced polymers were ES directly onto resistance temperature detectors and interrogated with green laser light so that temperature change could be recorded. Results showed a maximum increase of 8.9 °C. To further understand how gold nanomaterials effect the complex optical properties of our materials, spectroscopic ellipsometry was used. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry and modeling with CompleteEASE® software, the complex optical constants of our materials were determined. The complex optical constant n (index of refraction) provided us with optical density properties related to light wavelength divided by velocity, and k (extinction coefficient) was used to show the absorptive properties of the materials. 
    more » « less
  2. New preservation technologies may allow for organ banking similar to blood and biomaterial banking approaches. Using cryoprotective agents (CPAs), aqueous solutions with organic components such as DMSO, propylene glycol, and added salts and sugars, organs can be used to vitrify and store organs at −140 °C. When needed, these organs can be rewarmed in a rapid and uniform manner if CPAs are supplemented with iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in an applied radiofrequency field. Speed and uniformity of warming are both IONP concentration and CPA suspension dependent. Here we present a coating method of small molecule phosphonate linker (PLink) and biocompatible polymer ( i.e. polyethylene glycol PEG) that tunes stability and increases the maximum allowable concentration of IONPs in CPA suspension. PLink contains a phosphonate 'anchor' for high irreversible binding to iron oxide and a carboxylic acid 'handle' for ligand attachment. PLink-PEG removes and replaces the initial coating layer of commercially available IONPs (EMG1200 (hydrophobic) and EMG308 (hydrophilic) Ferrotec, Inc., increasing colloidal stability and decreasing aggregation in both water and CPAs, (verified with dynamic light scattering) from minutes (uncoated) to up to 6 days. Heating properties of EMG1200, specific absorption rate (SAR), measured using an applied field of 360 kHz and 20 kA m −1 , increased from 20 to 180 W per g Fe with increasing PLink-PEG5000. PEG replacing the initially hydrophobic coating decreased aggregation in water and CPA, consistent with earlier studies on heating performance. Furthermore, although the size is minimized at 0.20 mol PEG per g Fe, heating is not maximized until concentrations above 0.43 mol PEG per g Fe on EMG1200. SAR on hydrophilic EMG308 was preserved at 400 W per g Fe regardless of the amount of PLink added to the core. Herein concentrations of IONP in VS55 (common CPA) significantly above our previous capabilities, sIONP at 10 mg Fe per mL, was reached, 25 mg Fe per mL of 308-PEG5000 and 60 mg Fe per mL of 1200-PEG5000, approaching stock EMG308 in water, 60 mg Fe per mL. Furthermore, at these concentrations cryopreserved Human dermal fibroblast cells were successfully nanowarmed (at applied fields described above), with higher viability as compared to convective rewarming in a water bath and heating rate close to 200 °C min −1 , 2.5 times faster than our current system. Using PLink as the coating method allowed for higher concentrations of IONPs to be successfully suspended in CPA without affecting the heating ability. Additionally, the model ligand, PEG, allowed for increased stability over time in nanowarming experiments. 
    more » « less
  3. Abstract

    In this work, we present an extensive comparative study between novel titanium nitride nanoparticles (TiN NPs) and commercial gold nanorods (GNR), both dispersed in water and exposed to a pulsed laser‐induced cavitation process. The optical density, shockwave emission, and bubble formation of these solutions were investigated using shadowgraphy, spatial transmittance modulation, and acoustic measurements. TiN nanoparticle solutions exhibited high stability undser a periodic nanosecond pulsed‐laser irradiation, making these nanomaterials promising agents for high‐power applications. In addition, they demonstrated a stronger nonlinear absorption compared to the GNR solutions, and plasma formation at lower laser energies. This study advances our understanding of the optical properties of TiN and discusses significant differences compared to gold, with important implications for future applications of this material in water treatment, nonlinear signal converting, and laser‐induced cavitation for medical implementations, among others.

    more » « less
  4. Plasmon-mediated electrocatalysis based on plasmonic gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) has emerged as a promising approach to facilitate electrochemical reactions with the introduction of light to excite the plasmonic electrodes. We have investigated the electrochemical oxidation of 4-(hydroxymethyl)benzoic acid (4-HMBA) on gold (Au), nickel (Ni), and platinum (Pt) metal working electrodes in alkaline electrolytes. Au has the lowest onset potential for catalyzing the electrooxidation of 4-HMBA among the three metals in base, whereas Pt does not catalyze the electrooxidation of 4-HMBA under alkaline conditions, although it is conventionally a good electrocatalyst for alcohol oxidation. Both 4-carboxybenzaldehyde and terephthalic acid are detected as the products of electrochemical oxidation of 4-HMBA on the Au working electrode by high-performance liquid chromatography . The electrodeposited Au NPs on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass is further utilized as the working electrode for the 4-HMBA electrooxidation. With its broad absorption in the visible and near-infrared range, we show that the Au NPs on the ITO electrode could enhance the electrochemical oxidation of 4-HMBA under green and red LED light illuminations (505 and 625 nm). A possible reaction mechanism is proposed for the electrochemical oxidation of 4-HMBA on Au working electrodes in an alkaline electrolyte. 
    more » « less
  5. Abstract Fabrication of micro- and nanoscale electronic components has become increasingly demanding due to device and interconnect scaling combined with advanced packaging and assembly for electronic, aerospace, and medical applications. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have made it possible to fabricate microscale, 3D interconnect structures but heat transfer during the fabrication process is one of the most important phenomena influencing the reliable manufacturing of these interconnect structures. In this study, optical absorption and scattering by three-dimensional (3D) nanoparticle packings are investigated to gain insight into micro/nano heat transport within the nanoparticles. Because drying of colloidal solutions creates different configurations of nanoparticles, the plasmonic coupling in three different copper nanoparticle packing configurations was investigated: simple cubic (SC), face-centered cubic (FCC), and hexagonal close packing (HCP). Single-scatter albedo (ω) was analyzed as a function of nanoparticle size, packing density, and configuration to assess effect for thermo-optical properties and plasmonic coupling of the Cu nanoparticles within the nanoparticle packings. This analysis provides insight into plasmonically enhanced absorption in copper nanoparticle particles and its consequences for laser heating of nanoparticle assemblies. 
    more » « less