Pancreatic cancer is one of the most complex types of cancers to detect, diagnose, and treat. However, the field of nanomedicine has strong potential to address such challenges. When evaluating the diffusion and penetration of theranostic nanoparticles, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is of crucial importance because it acts as a barrier to the tumor microenvironment. In the present study, the penetration of functionalized, fluorescent gold nanorods into large (>500 μm) multicellular 3D tissue spheroids was studied using a multimodal imaging approach. The spheroids were generated by co-culturing pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells in multiple ratios to mimic variable tumor-stromal compositions and to investigate nanoparticle penetration. Fluorescence live imaging, photothermal, and photoacoustic analysis were utilized to examine nanoparticle behavior in the spheroids. Uniquely, the nanorods are intrinsically photoacoustic and photothermal, enabling multi-imaging detection even when fluorescence tracking is not possible or ideal.
Live imaging of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) provides vital insights into changes that occur in neurological disorders. Current techniques such as second or third‐harmonic generation offer limited contrast for live imaging of the brain ECM. Here, a new method, pan‐ECM via chemical labeling of extracellular proteins, is introduced for live brain ECM imaging. pan‐ECM labels all major ECM components in live tissue including the interstitial matrix, basement membrane, and perineuronal nets. pan‐ECM enables in vivo observation of the ECM heterogeneity between the glioma core and margin, as well as the assessment of ECM deterioration under stroke condition, without ECM shrinkage from tissue fixation. These findings indicate that the pan‐ECM approach is a novel way to image the entire brain ECM in live brain tissue with optical resolution. pan‐ECM has the potential to advance the understanding of ECM in brain function and neurological diseases.more » « less
- NSF-PAR ID:
- Publisher / Repository:
- Wiley Blackwell (John Wiley & Sons)
- Date Published:
- Journal Name:
- Small Methods
- Medium: X
- Sponsoring Org:
- National Science Foundation
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