skip to main content

This content will become publicly available on August 1, 2024

Title: Anisotropy in Additively Manufactured Concrete Specimens under Compressive Loading—Quantification of the Effects of Layer Height and Fiber Reinforcement

This paper analyzes the effect of print layer heights and loading direction on the compressive response of plain and fiber-reinforced (steel or basalt fiber) 3D printed concrete. Slabs with three different layer heights (6, 13, and 20 mm) are printed, and extracted cubes are subjected to compression (i) along the direction of printing, (ii) along the direction of layer build-up, and (iii) perpendicular to the above two directions. Digital image correlation (DIC) is used as a non-contact means to acquire the strain profiles. While the 3D printed specimens show lower strengths, as compared to cast specimens, when tested in all three directions, this effect can be reduced through the use of fiber reinforcement. Peak stress and peak strain-based anisotropy coefficients, which are linearly related, are used to characterize and quantify the directional dependence of peak stress and strain. Interface-parallel cracking is found to be the major failure mechanism, and anisotropy coefficients increase with an increase in layer height, which is attributable to the increasing significance of interfacial defects. Thus, orienting the weaker interfaces appropriately, through changes in printing direction, or strengthening them through material modifications (such as fiber reinforcement) or process changes (lower layer height, enables attainment of near-isotropy in 3D printed concrete elements.

more » « less
Award ID(s):
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ;
Publisher / Repository:
Date Published:
Journal Name:
Page Range / eLocation ID:
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
More Like this
  1. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Pellet-based extrusion deposition of carbon fiber-reinforced composites at high material deposition rates has recently gained much attention due to its applications in large-scale additive manufacturing. The mechanical and physical properties of large-volume components largely depend on their reinforcing fiber length. However, very few studies have been done thus far to have a direct comparison of additively fabricated composites reinforced with different carbon fiber lengths. In this study, a new additive manufacturing (AM) approach to fabricate long fiber-reinforced polymer (LFRP) was first proposed. A pellet-based extrusion deposition method was implemented, which directly used thermoplastic pellets and continuous fiber tows as feedstock materials. Discontinuous long carbon fibers, with an average fiber length of 20.1 mm, were successfully incorporated into printed LFRP samples. The printed LFRP samples were compared with short fiber-reinforced polymer (SFRP) and continuous fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) counterparts through mechanical tests and microstructural analyses. The carbon fiber dispersion, distribution of carbon fiber length and orientation, and fiber wetting were studied. As expected, a steady increase in flexural strength was observed with increasing fiber length. The carbon fibers were highly oriented along the printing direction. A more uniformly distributed discontinuous fiber reinforcement was found within printed SFRP and LFRP samples. Due to decreased fiber impregnation time and lowered impregnation rate, the printed CFRP samples showed a lower degree of impregnation and worse fiber wetting conditions. The feasibility of the proposed AM methods was further demonstrated by fabricating large-volume components with complex geometries. 
    more » « less
  2. One of the fundamental issues in the Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) additive manufacturing process lies in the mechanical property anisotropy where the strength of the FFF-3D printed part in the build-direction can be significantly lower than that in other directions. The physical phenomenon that governs this issue is the coupled effect of macroscopic thermal mechanical issues associated with the thermal history of the interface, and the microscopic effect of the polymer microstructure and mass transfer across interfaces. In this study it was found that the use of 34.4 kHz ultrasonic vibrations during FFF-3D printing results in an increase of up to 10% in the interlayer adhesion in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS), comparing the printing in identical thermal conditions to that in conventional FFF printing. This increase in the interlayer adhesion strength is attributed to the increase in polymer reptation due to ultrasonic vibration-induced relaxation of the polymer chains from secondary interactions in the interface regions. 
    more » « less
  3. Anisotropy in additive manufacturing (AM), particularly in the material extrusion process, plays a crucial role in determining the actual structural performance, including the stiffness and strength of the printed parts. Unless accounted for, anisotropy can compromise the objective performance of topology-optimized structures and allow premature failures for stress-sensitive design domains. This study harnesses process-induced anisotropy in material extrusion-based 3D printing to design and fabricate stiff, strong, and lightweight structures using a two-step framework. First, an AM-oriented anisotropic strength-based topology optimization formulation optimizes the structural geometry and infill orientations, while assuming both anisotropic (i.e., transversely isotropic) and isotropic infill types as candidate material phases. The dissimilar stiffness and strength interpolation schemes in the formulation allow for the optimized allocation of anisotropic and isotropic material phases in the design domain while satisfying their respective Tsai–Wu and von Mises stress constraints. Second, a suitable fabrication methodology realizes anisotropic and isotropic material phases with appropriate infill density, controlled print path (i.e., infill directions), and strong interfaces of dissimilar material phases. Experimental investigations show up to 37% improved stiffness and 100% improved strength per mass for the optimized and fabricated structures. The anisotropic strength-based optimization improves load-carrying capacity by simultaneous infill alignment along the stress paths and topological adaptation in response to high stress concentration. The adopted interface fabrication methodology strengthens comparatively weaker anisotropic joints with minimal additional material usage and multi-axial infill patterns. Furthermore, numerically predicted failure locations agree with experimental observations. The demonstrated framework is general and can potentially be adopted for other additive manufacturing processes that exhibit anisotropy, such as fiber composites. 
    more » « less
  4. Manoj Gupta (Ed.)

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing with continuous carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer (C-CFRP) composites is under increasing development, as it offers more versatility than traditional molding processes, such as the out-of-autoclave-vacuum bag only (OOA-VBO) process. However, due to the layer-by-layer deposition of materials, voids can form between the layers and weaken some of the parts’ properties, such as the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS). In this paper, a novel mold-less magnetic compaction force-assisted additive manufacturing (MCFA-AM) method was used to print carbon nanofiber (CNF) z-threaded CFRP (ZT-CFRP) laminates with significantly improved ILSS and reduced void content compared to traditional C-CFRP laminates, which are printed using a no-pressure 3D-printing process (similar to the fused-deposition-modeling process). The radial flow alignment (RFA) and resin-blending techniques were utilized to manufacture a printing-compatible fast-curing ZT-CFRP prepreg tape to act as the feedstock for a MCFA-AM printhead, which was mounted on a robotic arm. In terms of the ILSS, the MCFA-AM method coupled with ZT-CFRP nanomaterial technology significantly outperformed the C-CFRP made with both the traditional no-pressure 3D-printing process and the OOA-VBO molding process. Furthermore, the mold-less MCFA-AM process more than doubled the production speed of the OOA-VBO molding process. This demonstrates that through the integration of new nanomaterials and 3D-printing techniques, a paradigm shift in C-CFRP manufacturing with significantly better performance, versatility, agility, efficiency, and lower cost is achievable.

    more » « less
  5. Kushvaha, V. ; Sanjay, M. R. ; Madhushri, P. ; Siengchin, S. (Ed.)
    The products manufactured by the additive manufacturing (AM) methods have unique signatures in their microstructures due to the layer by layer manufacturing. Machine learning of microstructures of the printed sample can help in interpreting these signatures and the patterns can be used for either determining the authenticity of the product or for reverse engineering. In this work, specimens of 3D printed glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) composite materials are subjected to imaging and machine learning in order to rebuild the tool path information. Since composites require significant research and development effort, the possibility of rebuilding the tool path by ML methods presents a significant vulnerability for intellectual property. The ML methods require a large training dataset and can be efficient in processing tomography datasets. Two kinds of artificial neural networks with three different algorithms are introduced in this work and their results are compared. A 3D printed GFRP specimen is imaged using a micro CT-scan and the images are processed using binarized statistical image features method for compression without compromising the microstructural information. The ML models are trained on this dataset and the results indicate that the ML is able to identify the printing tool path with accuracy. 
    more » « less