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Title: Entropy is a good approximation to the electronic (static) correlation energy

For an electronic system, given a mean field method and a distribution of orbital occupation numbers that are close to the natural occupations of the correlated system, we provide formal evidence and computational support to the hypothesis that the entropy (or more precisely −σS, where σ is a parameter and S is the entropy) of such a distribution is a good approximation to the correlation energy. Underpinning the formal evidence are mild assumptions: the correlation energy is strictly a functional of the occupation numbers, and the occupation numbers derive from an invertible distribution. Computational support centers around employing different mean field methods and occupation number distributions (Fermi–Dirac, Gaussian, and linear), for which our claims are verified for a series of pilot calculations involving bond breaking and chemical reactions. This work establishes a formal footing for those methods employing entropy as a measure of electronic correlation energy (e.g., i-DMFT [Wang and Baerends, Phys. Rev. Lett. 128, 013001 (2022)] and TAO-DFT [J.-D. Chai, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 154104 (2012)]) and sets the stage for the widespread use of entropy functionals for approximating the (static) electronic correlation.

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Award ID(s):
2154760 2117429 1931473
Author(s) / Creator(s):
; ; ;
Publisher / Repository:
American Institute of Physics
Date Published:
Journal Name:
The Journal of Chemical Physics
Medium: X
Sponsoring Org:
National Science Foundation
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Fig. 3(b) shows the tunneling probability T according to the Kane two-band model in the three materials, In0.53Ga0.47As, GaAs, and GaN, following our observation of a similar electroluminescence mechanism in GaN/AlN RTDs (due to strong polarization field of wurtzite structures) [8]. The expression is Tinter = (2/9)∙exp[(-2 ∙Ug 2 ∙me)/(2h∙P∙E)], where Ug is the bandgap energy, P is the valence-to-conduction-band momentum matrix element, and E is the electric field. Values for the highest calculated internal E fields for the InGaAs and GaN are also shown, indicating that Tinter in those structures approaches values of ~10-5. As shown, a GaAs RTD would require an internal field of ~6×105 V/cm, which is rarely realized in standard GaAs RTDs, perhaps explaining why there have been few if any reports of room-temperature electroluminescence in the GaAs devices. [1] E.R. Brown,et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 58, 2291, 1991. [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [2] M. Feiginov et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 99, 233506, 2011. [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [3] Y. Nishida et al., Nature Sci. Reports, 9, 18125, 2019. [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [4] P. Fakhimi, et al., 2019 DRC Conference Digest. [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). [5] S. Sze, Physics of Semiconductor Devices, 2nd Ed. 12.2.1 (Wiley, 1981). [6] L. Coldren, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits, (Wiley, 1995). [7] E.O. Kane, J. of Appl. Phy 32, 83 (1961). [8] T. Growden, et al., Nature Light: Science & Applications 7, 17150 (2018). 
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