Krylov Cubic Regularized Newton: A Subspace Second-Order Method with Dimension-Free Convergence Rate

Second-order optimization methods, such as cubic regularized Newton methods, are known for their rapid convergence rates; nevertheless, they become impractical in high-dimensional problems due to their substantial memory requirements and computational costs. One promising approach is to execute second order updates within a lower-dimensional subspace, giving rise to \textit{subspace second-order} methods. However, the majority of existing subspace second-order methods randomly select subspaces, consequently resulting in slower convergence rates depending on the problem's dimension $d$. In this paper, we introduce a novel subspace cubic regularized Newton method that achieves a dimension-independent global convergence rate of $\bigO\left(\frac{1}{mk}+\frac{1}{k^2}\right)$ for solving convex optimization problems. Here, $m$ represents the subspace dimension, which can be significantly smaller than $d$. Instead of adopting a random subspace, our primary innovation involves performing the cubic regularized Newton update within the \emph{Krylov subspace} associated with the Hessian and the gradient of the objective function. This result marks the first instance of a dimension-independent convergence rate for a subspace second-order method. Furthermore, when specific spectral conditions of the Hessian are met, our method recovers the convergence rate of a full-dimensional cubic regularized Newton method. Numerical experiments show our method converges faster than existing random subspace methods, especially for high-dimensional problems.

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