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  1. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate electrical switching of a 4% tungsten-doped Ge2Sb2Te5(W-GST) pixel in a lateral configuration without the need for an auxiliary resistive heater. The phase transition between an amorphous and poly-crystalline state is achieved by Joule heating directly through the 4μm × 4μm × 350 nm active volume of the chalcogenide phase change pixel. While undoped GST would be challenging to switch in a lateral configuration due to very large resistance in the amorphous state, W-GST allows for switching at reasonable voltage levels. The pixel temperature profile is simulated using finite element analysis methods to identify the pulse parameters required for a successful electrical actuation. Experimentally, a 1550 nm light source is used for in-situ optical reflection measurements in order to verify the crystallization and re-amorphization of the pixel. As a result of the W doping, we identify volatile and non-volatile regimes with respect to bias voltage and pulse width during crystallization. During amorphization, we observe irreversible material failure after one complete cycle using in-situ optical monitoring, which can be attributed to a migration or segregation process. These results provide a promising path toward electrically addressed devices that are suitable for optical applications requiring amplitude modulation in a reflective geometry, such as spatial light modulators.

     
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  2. For active beam manipulation devices, such as those based on liquid crystals, phase-change materials, or electro-optic materials, measuring accumulated phase of the light passing through a layer of the material is imperative to understand the functionality of the overall device. In this work we discuss a way of measuring the phase accumulation through a switched layer of Ge2Sb2Te5, which is seeing rapid use as means to high speed dynamic reconfiguration of free space light. Utilizing an interferometer in the switching setup and modulating the phase of one arm, the intensity of a probe beam can be captured and phase data pulled from it. Simulations were used to discover the connection between the intensity modulations and the phase information. The technique was tested experimentally and it was found that within error, the measurement was robust and repeatable.

     
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  3. Phase change material Ge2Sb2Te5 tilted and helical nanorods films featuring 25 nm diameters are grown using the oblique and glancing angle deposition techniques. We provide insights on the growth process, structural integrity and optical responses 
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  4. We created a system for the characterization of Ge2Sb2Te5 starting with a 1550 nm CW laser and utilizing second harmonic generation through a PPLN crystal in order to achieve full pulse control at 775 nm. 
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  5. Abstract

    Bound states in the continuum (BICs) are widely studied for their ability to confine light, produce sharp resonances for sensing applications and serve as avenues for lasing action with topological characteristics. Primarily, the formation of BICs in periodic photonic band gap structures are driven by symmetry incompatibility; structural manipulation or variation of incidence angle from incoming light. In this work, we report two modalities for driving the formation of BICs in terahertz metasurfaces. At normal incidence, we experimentally confirm polarization driven symmetry-protected BICs by the variation of the linear polarization state of light. In addition, we demonstrate through strong coupling of two radiative modes the formation of capacitively-driven Freidrich-Wintgen BICs, exotic modes which occur in off-Γpoints not accessible by symmetry-protected BICs. The capacitance-mediated strong coupling at 0° polarization is verified to have a normalized coupling strength ratio of 4.17% obtained by the Jaynes-Cummings model. Furthermore, when the polarization angle is varied from 0° to 90° (0° ≤ϕ < 90°), the Freidrich-Wintgen BIC is modulated until it is completely switched off at 90°.

     
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  6. We present an advancement towards high speed (sub ps) phase change material based spatial light modulators by electrically addressing single pixels with high-speed optical monitoring at 1550nm light. 
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  7. Chalcogenide phase change materials based on germanium-antimony-tellurides (GST-PCMs) have shown outstanding properties in non-volatile memory (NVM) technologies due to their high write and read speeds, reversible phase transition, high degree of scalability, low power consumption, good data retention, and multi-level storage capability. However, GST-based PCMs have shown recent promise in other domains, such as in spatial light modulation, beam steering, and neuromorphic computing. This paper reviews the progress in GST-based PCMs and methods for improving the performance within the context of new applications that have come to light in recent years. 
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  9. Abstract

    The generation of rapidly tunable optical vortex (OV) beams is one of the most demanding research areas of the present era as they possess orbital angular momentum (OAM) with additional degrees of freedom that can be exploited to enhance signal‐carrying capacity by using mode division multiplexing and information encoding in optical communication. Particularly, rapidly tunable OAM devices at a fixed wavelength in the telecom band stir extensive interest among researchers for both classical and quantum applications. This article demonstrates the realistic design of a Si‐integrated photonic device for rapidly tunable OAM wave generation at a 1550‐nm wavelength by using an ultra‐low‐loss phase change material (PCM) embedded with a Si‐ring resonator with angular gratings. Different OAM modes are achieved by tuning the effective refractive index using rapid electrical switching of Sb2Se3 film from amorphous to crystalline states and vice versa. The generation of OAM waves relies on a traveling wave modulation of the refractive index of the micro‐ring, which breaks the degeneracy of oppositely oriented whispering gallery modes. The proposed device is capable of producing rapidly tunable OV beams, carrying different OAM modes by using electrically controllable switching of ultra‐low‐loss PCM Sb2Se3.

     
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