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  1. Postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) is detrimental to health and increases risk of cardiovascular diseases, reduced eyesight, and life-threatening conditions like cancer. Detecting PPHG events before they occur can potentially help with providing early interventions. Prior research suggests that PPHG events can be predicted based on information about diet. However, such computational approaches (1) are data hungry requiring significant amounts of data for algorithm training; and (2) work as a black-box and lack interpretability, thus limiting the adoption of these technologies for use in clinical interventions. Motivated by these shortcomings, we propose, DietNudge 1 , a machine learning based framework that integrates multi-modal data about diet, insulin, and blood glucose to predict PPHG events before they occur. Using data from patients with diabetes, we demonstrate that our model can predict PPHG events with up to 90% classification accuracy and an average F1 score of 0.93. The proposed decision-tree-based approach also identifies modifiable factors that contribute to an impending PPHG event while providing personalized thresholds to prevent such events. Our results suggest that we can develop simple, yet effective, computational algorithms that can be used as preventative mechanisms for diabetes and obesity management. 
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  2. With rapid growth in unhealthy diet behaviors, implementing strategies that improve healthy eating is becoming increasingly important. One approach to improving diet behavior is to continuously monitor dietary intake (e.g., calorie intake) and provide educational, motivational, and dietary recommendation feedback. Although technologies based on wearable sensors, mobile applications, and light-weight cameras exist to gather diet-related information such as food type and eating time, there remains a gap in research on how to use such information to close the loop and provide feedback to the user to improve healthy diet. We address this knowledge gap by introducing a diet behavior change framework that generates real-time diet recommendations based on a user’s food intake and considering user’s deviation from the suggested diet routine. We formulate the problem of optimal diet recommendation as a sequential decision making problem and design a greedy algorithm that provides diet recommendations such that the amount of change in user’s dietary habits is minimized while ensuring that the user’s diet goal is achieved within a given time-frame. This novel approach is inspired by the Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes behavioral monitoring and small incremental goals as being important to behavior change. Our optimization algorithm integrates data from a user’s past dietary intake as well as the USDA nutrition dataset to identify optimal diet changes. We demonstrate the feasibility of our optimization algorithms for diet behavior change using real-data collected in two study cohorts with a combined N=10 healthy participants who recorded their diet for up to 21 days. 
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  3. Automatic lying posture tracking is an important factor in human health monitoring. The increasing popularity of the wrist-based trackers provides the means for unobtrusive, affordable, and long-term monitoring with minimized privacy concerns for the end-users and promising results in detecting the type of physical activity, step counting, and sleep quality assessment. However, there is limited research on development of accurate and efficient lying posture tracking models using wrist-based sensor. Our experiments demonstrate a major drop in the accuracy of the lying posture tracking using wrist-based accelerometer sensor due to the unpredictable noise from arbitrary wrist movements and rotations while sleeping. In this paper, we develop a deep transfer learning method that improves performance of lying posture tracking using noisy data from wrist sensor by transferring the knowledge from an initial setting which contains both clean and noisy data. The proposed solution develops an optimal mapping model from the noisy data to the clean data in the initial setting using LSTM sequence regression, and reconstruct clean synthesized data in another setting where no noisy sensor data is available. This increases the lying posture tracking F1-Score by 24.9% for left-wrist and by 18.1% for right-wrist sensors comparing to the case without mapping. 
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