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  1. Magnetic materials are essential for energy generation and information devices, and they play an important role in advanced technologies and green energy economies. Currently, the most widely used magnets contain rare earth (RE) elements. An outstanding challenge of notable scientific interest is the discovery and synthesis of novel magnetic materials without RE elements that meet the performance and cost goals for advanced electromagnetic devices. Here, we report our discovery and synthesis of an RE-free magnetic compound, Fe 3 CoB 2 , through an efficient feedback framework by integrating machine learning (ML), an adaptive genetic algorithm, first-principles calculations, and experimental synthesis. Magnetic measurements show that Fe 3 CoB 2 exhibits a high magnetic anisotropy ( K 1 = 1.2 MJ/m 3 ) and saturation magnetic polarization ( J s = 1.39 T), which is suitable for RE-free permanent-magnet applications. Our ML-guided approach presents a promising paradigm for efficient materials design and discovery and can also be applied to the search for other functional materials.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 22, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  3. Heusler compounds and alloys based on them are of great recent interest because they exhibit a wide variety of spin structures, magnetic properties, and electron-transport phenomena. Their properties are tunable by alloying and we have investigated L21-orderd compound Ru2MnSn and its alloys by varying the atomic Mn:Sn composition. While antiferromagnetic ordering with a Néel temperature of 361 K was observed in Ru2MnSn, the Mn-poor Ru2Mn0.8Sn1.2 alloy exhibits properties of a diluted antiferromagnet in which there are localized regions of uncompensated Mn spins. Furthermore, a noncoplanar spin structure, evident from a topological Hall-effect contribution to the room-temperature Hall resistivity, is realized in Ru2Mn0.8Sn1.2. Our combined experimental and theoretical analysis shows that in the Ru2Mn0.8Sn1.2 alloy, the magnetic properties can be explained in terms of a noncoplanar antiferromagnetic scissor mode, which creates a small net magnetization in a magnetic field and subsequently yields a Berry curvature with a strong topological Hall effect.
  4. Magnetotransport and ferromagnetism in thin films of Co2Si nanoclusters are investigated experimentally and theoretically. The nanoclusters are fabricated by an inert-gas condensation-type cluster-deposition method and have an average size of 11.3 nm. Unlike the bulk Co2Si that exhibits a very weak net magnetic moment only below 10 K, the nanoclusters exhibit room-temperature ferromagnetism with a substantial saturation magnetization. Key features of the system are its closeness to the Stoner transition, magnetic moments induced by spin polarization starting from surface atoms, and nonuniaxial anisotropy associated with the orthorhombic crystal structure of Co2Si. A method is introduced to determine the effective anisotropy using the experimental magnetization data of this complex system and its relationship with the two lowest-order nonuniaxial anisotropy constants. On decreasing temperature from 300 K, the nanoclusters show electron-transport properties unusual for a ferromagnetic metal, including an increase of Hall resistivity and a nonmonotonic change of negative magnetoresistance with a peak at around 100 K. The underlying physics is explained on the basis of the large polarization of surface spins and variation in the degree of their misalignments due to temperature-dependent effective anisotropy.
  5. Cobalt( ii ) ions were adsorbed to the surface of rod-shape anatase TiO 2 nanocrystals and subsequently heated to promote ion diffusion into the nanocrystal. After removal of any remaining surface bound cobalt, a sample consisting of strictly cobalt-doped TiO 2 was obtained and characterized with powder X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The nanocrystal morphology was unchanged in the process and no new crystal phases were detected. The concentration of cobalt in the doped samples linearly correlates with the initial loading of cobalt( ii ) ions on the nanocrystal surface. Thin films of the cobalt doped TiO 2 nanocrystals were prepared on indium-tin oxide coated glass substrate, and the electrical conductivity increased with the concentration of doped cobalt. Magnetic measurements of the cobalt-doped TiO 2 nanocrystals reveal paramagnetic behavior at room temperature, and antiferromagnetic interactions between Co ions at low temperatures. Antiferromagnetism is atypical for cobalt-doped TiO 2 nanocrystals, and is proposed to arise from interstitial doping that may be favored by the diffusional doping mechanism.
  6. New magnetic materials for energy and information-processing applications are of paramount importance in view of significant global challenges in environmental and information security. The discovery and design of materials requires efficient computational and experimental approaches for high throughput and efficiency. When increasingly powerful computational techniques are combined with special non-equilibrium fabrication methods, the search can uncover metastable compounds with desired magnetic properties. Here we review recent results on novel Fe-, Co- and Mn-rich magnetic compounds with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy, saturation magnetization, and Curie temperature created by combining experiments, adaptive genetic algorithm searches, and advanced electronic-structure computational methods. We discuss structural and magnetic properties of such materials including Co– and/or Fe–X compounds (X = N, Si, Sn, Zr, Hf, Y, C, S, Ti, or Mn), and their prospects for practical applications.