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  1. Bringmann, Karl ; Grohe, Martin ; Puppis, Gabriele ; Svensson, Ola (Ed.)
    The hereditary discrepancy of a set system is a quantitative measure of the pseudorandom properties of the system. Roughly speaking, hereditary discrepancy measures how well one can 2-color the elements of the system so that each set contains approximately the same number of elements of each color. Hereditary discrepancy has numerous applications in computational geometry, communication complexity and derandomization. More recently, the hereditary discrepancy of the set system of shortest paths has found applications in differential privacy [Chen et al. SODA 23]. The contribution of this paper is to improve the upper and lower bounds on the hereditary discrepancy of set systems of unique shortest paths in graphs. In particular, we show that any system of unique shortest paths in an undirected weighted graph has hereditary discrepancy O(n^{1/4}), and we construct lower bound examples demonstrating that this bound is tight up to polylog n factors. Our lower bounds hold even for planar graphs and bipartite graphs, and improve a previous lower bound of Ω(n^{1/6}) obtained by applying the trace bound of Chazelle and Lvov [SoCG'00] to a classical point-line system of Erdős. As applications, we improve the lower bound on the additive error for differentially-private all pairs shortest distances from Ω(n^{1/6}) [Chen et al. SODA 23] to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), and we improve the lower bound on additive error for the differentially-private all sets range queries problem to Ω̃(n^{1/4}), which is tight up to polylog n factors [Deng et al. WADS 23]. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2025
  2. A t-emulator of a graph G is a graph H that approximates its pairwise shortest path distances up to multiplicative t error. We study fault tolerant t-emulators, under the model recently introduced by Bodwin, Dinitz, and Nazari [ITCS 2022] for vertex failures. In this paper we consider the version for edge failures, and show that they exhibit surprisingly different behavior. In particular, our main result is that, for (2k-1)-emulators with k odd, we can tolerate a polynomial number of edge faults for free. For example: for any n-node input graph, we construct a 5-emulator (k = 3) on O(n^{4/3}) edges that is robust to f = O(n^{2/9}) edge faults. It is well known that Ω(n^{4/3}) edges are necessary even if the 5-emulator does not need to tolerate any faults. Thus we pay no extra cost in the size to gain this fault tolerance. We leave open the precise range of free fault tolerance for odd k, and whether a similar phenomenon can be proved for even k. 
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  3. We study two popular ways to sketch the shortest path distances of an input graph. The first is distance preservers , which are sparse subgraphs that agree with the distances of the original graph on a given set of demand pairs. Prior work on distance preservers has exploited only a simple structural property of shortest paths, called consistency , stating that one can break shortest path ties such that no two paths intersect, split apart, and then intersect again later. We prove that consistency alone is not enough to understand distance preservers, by showing both a lower bound on the power of consistency and a new general upper bound that polynomially surpasses it. Specifically, our new upper bound is that any p demand pairs in an n -node undirected unweighted graph have a distance preserver on O( n 2/3 p 2/3 + np 1/3 edges. We leave a conjecture that the right bound is O ( n 2/3 p 2/3 + n ) or better. The second part of this paper leverages these distance preservers in a new construction of additive spanners , which are subgraphs that preserve all pairwise distances up to an additive error function. We give improved error bounds for spanners with relatively few edges; for example, we prove that all graphs have spanners on O(n) edges with + O ( n 3/7 + ε ) error. Our construction can be viewed as an extension of the popular path-buying framework to clusters of larger radii. 
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  4. Abstract

    We give a unified proof of algorithmic weak and Szemerédi regularity lemmas for several well‐studied classes of sparse graphs, for which only weak regularity lemmas were previously known. These include core‐dense graphs, low threshold rank graphs, and (a version of)upper regular graphs. More precisely, we definecut pseudorandom graphs, we prove our regularity lemmas for these graphs, and then we show that cut pseudorandomness captures all of the above graph classes as special cases. The core of our approach is an abstracted matrix decomposition, which can be computed by a simple algorithm by Charikar. Using work of Oveis Gharan and Trevisan, it also implies new PTASes for MAX‐CUT, MAX‐BISECTION, MIN‐BISECTION for a significantly expanded class of input graphs. (It is NP Hard to get PTASes for these graphs in general.)

     
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Recent work has pinned down the existentially optimal size bounds for vertex fault-tolerant spanners: for any positive integer k, every n-node graph has a (2k – 1)-spanner on O(f^{1–1/k} n^{1+1/k}) edges resilient to f vertex faults, and there are examples of input graphs on which this bound cannot be improved. However, these proofs work by analyzing the output spanner of a certain exponential-time greedy algorithm. In this work, we give the first algorithm that produces vertex fault tolerant spanners of optimal size and which runs in polynomial time. Specifically, we give a randomized algorithm which takes Õ(f^{1–1/k} n^{2+1/k} + mf2) time. We also derandomize our algorithm to give a deterministic algorithm with similar bounds. This reflects an exponential improvement in runtime over [Bodwin-Patel PODC '19], the only previously known algorithm for constructing optimal vertex fault-tolerant spanners. 
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  6. null (Ed.)