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  1. null (Ed.)
    Applications of Generative Machine Learning techniques such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) are used to generate new instances of images, music, text, and videos. While GANs have now become commonplace on social media, a part of children’s lives, and have considerable ethical implications, existing K-12 AI education curricula do not include generative AI. We present a new module, “What are GANs?”, that teaches middle school students how GANs work and how they can create media using GANs. We developed an online, team-based game to simulate how GANs work. Students also interacted with up to four web tools that apply GANs to generate media. This module was piloted with 72 middle school students in a series of online workshops. We provide insight into student usage, understanding, and attitudes towards this lesson. Finally, we give suggestions for integrating this lesson into AI education curricula. 
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  2. null (Ed.)
    Across a wide variety of domains, artificial agents that can adapt and personalize to users have potential to improve and transform how social services are provided. Because of the need for personalized interaction data to drive this process, long-term (or longitudinal) interactions between users and agents, which unfold over a series of distinct interaction sessions, have attracted substantial research interest. In recognition of the expanded scope and structure of a long-term interaction, researchers are also adjusting the personalization models and algorithms used, orienting toward “continual learning” methods, which do not assume a stationary modeling target and explicitly account for the temporal context of training data. In parallel, researchers have also studied the effect of “multitask personalization,” an approach in which an agent interacts with users over multiple different tasks contexts throughout the course of a long-term interaction and learns personalized models of a user that are transferrable across these tasks. In this paper, we unite these two paradigms under the framework of “Lifelong Personalization,” analyzing the effect of multitask personalization applied to dynamic, non-stationary targets. We extend the multi-task personalization approach to the more complex and realistic scenario of modeling dynamic learners over time, focusing in particular on interactive scenarios in which the modeling agent plays an active role in teaching the student whose knowledge the agent is simultaneously attempting to model. Inspired by the way in which agents use active learning to select new training data based on domain context, we augment a Gaussian Process-based multitask personalization model with a mechanism to actively and continually manage its own training data, allowing a modeling agent to remove or reduce the weight of observed data from its training set, based on interactive context cues. We evaluate this method in a series of simulation experiments comparing different approaches to continual and multitask learning on simulated student data. We expect this method to substantially improve learning in Gaussian Process models in dynamic domains, establishing Gaussian Processes as another flexible modeling tool for Long-term Human-Robot Interaction (HRI) Studies. 
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  3. null (Ed.)
    Applications of generative models such as Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) have made their way to social media platforms that children frequently interact with. While GANs are associated with ethical implications pertaining to children, such as the generation of Deepfakes, there are negligible efforts to educate middle school children about generative AI. In this work, we present a generative models learning trajectory (LT), educational materials, and interactive activities for young learners with a focus on GANs, creation and application of machine-generated media, and its ethical implications. The activities were deployed in four online workshops with 72 students (grades 5-9). We found that these materials enabled children to gain an understanding of what generative models are, their technical components and potential applications, and benefits and harms, while reflecting on their ethical implications. Learning from our findings, we propose an improved learning trajectory for complex socio-technical systems. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    In this experience report, we describe an AI summer workshop designed to prepare middle school students to become informed citizens and critical consumers of AI technology and to develop their foundational knowledge and skills to support future endeavors as AI-empowered workers. The workshop featured the 30-hour "Developing AI Literacy" or DAILy curriculum that is grounded in literature on child development, ethics education, and career development. The participants in the workshop were students between the ages of 10 and 14; 87% were from underrepresented groups in STEM and Computing. In this paper we describe the online curriculum, its implementation during synchronous online workshop sessions in summer of 2020, and preliminary findings on student outcomes. We reflect on the successes and lessons we learned in terms of supporting students' engagement and conceptual learning of AI, shifting attitudes toward AI, and fostering conceptions of future selves as AI-enabled workers. We conclude with discussions of the affordances and barriers to bringing AI education to students from underrepresented groups in STEM and Computing. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Due to classrooms moving online during COVID-19, educators are faced with the challenge of adapting in-classroom curricula for online instructions. This poses challenges and opportunities for AI learning given the project-based learning approaches of existing curricula. We taught a 5-hour synchronous online class about AI to 17 middle school students. In this paper, we discuss challenges in adapting to online learning and future opportunities. Our contribution is valuable to educators and curriculum designers that are adapting their AI curricula for synchronous online learning. 
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  6. Prior work in affect-aware educational robots has often relied on a common belief that the relationship between student affect and learning is independent of agent behaviors (child’s/robot’s) or unidirectional (positive/negative but not both) throughout the entire student-robot interaction.We argue that the student affect-learning relationship should be interpreted in two contexts: (1) social learning paradigm and (2) sub-events within child-robot interaction. In our paper, we examine two different social learning paradigms where children interact with a robot that acts either as a tutor or a tutee. Sub-events within child-robot interaction are defined as task-related events occurring in specific phases of an interaction (e.g., when the child/robot gets a wrong answer). We examine subevents at a macro level (entire interaction) and a micro level (within specific sub-events). In this paper, we provide an in-depth correlation analysis of children’s facial affect and vocabulary learning. We found that children’s affective displays became more predictive of their vocabulary learning when children interacted with a tutee robot who did not scaffold their learning. Additionally, children’s affect displayed during micro-level events was more predictive of their learning than during macro-level events. Last, we found that the affect-learning relationship is not unidirectional, but rather is modulated by context, i.e., several affective states facilitated student learning when displayed in some sub-events but inhibited learning when displayed in others. These findings indicate that both social learning paradigm and sub-events within interaction modulate student affect-learning relationship. 
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  7. The time is ripe to consider what 21st-century digital citizens should know about artificial intelligence (AI). Efforts are under way in the USA, China, and many other countries to promote AI education in kindergarten through high school (K–12). The past year has seen the release of new curricula and online resources for the K–12 audience, and new professional development opportunities for K–12 teachers to learn the basics of AI. This column surveys the current state of K–12 AI education and introduces the work of the AI4K12 Initiative, which is developing national guidelines for AI education in the USA.   A Note to the Reader This is the inaugural column on AI education. It aims to inform the AAAI community of current and future developments in AI education. We hope that the reader finds the columns to be informative and that they stimulate debate. It is our fond hope that this and subsequent columns inspire the reader to get involved in the broad field of AI education, by volunteering their expertise in their local school district, by providing level-headed input when discussing AI with family and friends or by lending their considerable expertise to various decision makers. We welcome your feedback, whether in the form of a response to an article or a suggestion for a future article. – Michael Wollowski, AI in Education Column Editor 
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  8. This pilot study investigated the feasibility of implementing child-friendly robots for administering clinical and educational assessments with young children. JIBO, a social robot, was used as a new interface to administer a letter and number naming task and the 3rd Goldman Fristoe Test of Articulation (GFTA-3). The reason for using these assessment materials is to develop robust automatic speech recognition (ASR) and automated social interaction systems that can aid in administering such assessments more efficiently. The voice of JIBO simulates interaction with a peer, and images and playful transitions are displayed on JIBO’s face/screen. Several preliminary observations with 15 pre-kindergarten and 18 kindergarten students included the rate of task completion and strategies to increase student participation. Changes to the length and prompt delivery of the assessment protocol were considered based on these observations, and further observations are planned for future work with an additional cohort of 43 prekindergarten and 50 kindergarten students. Recommendations are given to inform future implementations and analyses. 
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