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Creators/Authors contains: "Broderick, Tamara"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. A taxonomy delineates where trust can break down in a probabilistic machine learning workflow that informs critical decisions. 
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  3. Some individuals with motor impairments communicate using a single switch - such as a button click, air puff, or blink. Our software, Nomon, provides a method for single-switch users to select between items on a screen. Nomon’s flexibility stems from its probabilistic selection method, which allows potential options to be arranged arbitrarily rather than requiring they be arranged in a grid. As a result, Nomon can be used for a host of applications - including gaming, drawing, and web browsing. Focusing on accessibility, we updated the Nomon interface in collaboration with a switch user and with experts in Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC). We present our updated Nomon interface as an open-source web application. 
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  4. Some individuals with motor impairments communicate using a single switch - such as a button click, air puff, or blink. Row-column scanning provides a method for choosing items arranged in a grid using a single switch. An alternative, Nomon, allows potential selections to be arranged arbitrarily rather than requiring a grid (as desired for gaming, drawing, etc.) - and provides an alternative probabilistic selection method. While past results suggest that Nomon may be faster and easier to use than row-column scanning, no work has yet quantified performance of the two methods over longer time periods or in tasks beyond writing. In this paper, we also develop and validate a webcam-based switch that allows a user without a motor impairment to approximate the response times of a motor-impaired single switch user; although the approximation is not a replacement for testing with single-switch users, it allows us to better initialize, calibrate, and evaluate our method. Over 10 sessions with the webcam switch, we found users typed faster and more easily with Nomon than with row-column scanning. The benefits of Nomon were even more pronounced in a picture-selection task. Evaluation and feedback from a motor-impaired switch user further supports the promise of Nomon. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
    Abstract While the cost of sequencing genomes has decreased dramatically in recent years, this expense often remains non-trivial. Under a fixed budget, scientists face a natural trade-off between quantity and quality: spending resources to sequence a greater number of genomes or spending resources to sequence genomes with increased accuracy. Our goal is to find the optimal allocation of resources between quantity and quality. Optimizing resource allocation promises to reveal as many new variations in the genome as possible. In this paper, we introduce a Bayesian nonparametric methodology to predict the number of new variants in a follow-up study based on a pilot study. When experimental conditions are kept constant between the pilot and follow-up, we find that our prediction is competitive with the best existing methods. Unlike current methods, though, our new method allows practitioners to change experimental conditions between the pilot and the follow-up. We demonstrate how this distinction allows our method to be used for more realistic predictions and for optimal allocation of a fixed budget between quality and quantity. 
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  6. Chiappa, Silvia ; Calandra, Roberto (Ed.)
  7. null (Ed.)