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  1. Deep learning’s performance has been extensively recognized recently. Graph neural networks (GNNs) are designed to deal with graph-structural data that classical deep learning does not easily manage. Since most GNNs were created using distinct theories, direct comparisons are impossible. Prior research has primarily concentrated on categorizing existing models, with little attention paid to their intrinsic connections. The purpose of this study is to establish a unified framework that integrates GNNs based on spectral graph and approximation theory. The framework incorporates a strong integration between spatial- and spectral-based GNNs while tightly associating approaches that exist within each respective domain.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 31, 2025
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 4, 2024
  3. Spatial optimization problems (SOPs) are characterized by spatial relationships governing the decision variables, objectives, and/or constraint functions. In this article, we focus on a specific type of SOP called spatial partitioning, which is a combinatorial problem due to the presence of discrete spatial units. Exact optimization methods do not scale with the size of the problem, especially within practicable time limits. This motivated us to develop population-based metaheuristics for solving such SOPs. However, the search operators employed by these population-based methods are mostly designed for real-parameter continuous optimization problems. For adapting these methods to SOPs, we apply domain knowledge in designing spatially aware search operators for efficiently searching through the discrete search space while preserving the spatial constraints. To this end, we put forward a simple yet effective algorithm called s warm-based s p atial meme ti c al gorithm (SPATIAL) and test it on the school (re)districting problem. Detailed experimental investigations are performed on real-world datasets to evaluate the performance of SPATIAL. Besides, ablation studies are performed to understand the role of the individual components of SPATIAL. Additionally, we discuss how SPATIAL is helpful in the real-life planning process and its applicability to different scenarios and motivate future research directions. 
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  4. Influence blocking maximization (IBM) is crucial in many critical real-world problems such as rumors prevention and epidemic containment. The existing work suffers from: (1) concentrating on uniform costs at the individual level, (2) mostly utilizing greedy approaches to approximate optimization, (3) lacking a proper graph representation for influence estimates. To address these issues, this research introduces a neural network model dubbed Neural Influence Blocking (\algo) for improved approximation and enhanced influence blocking effectiveness. The code is available at 
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