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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 7, 2022
  3. The algorithm for Monte Carlo simulation of parton-level events basedon an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) proposed in Ref.~ is used toperform a simulation of H\to 4\ell H → 4 ℓ decay. Improvements in the training algorithm have been implemented toavoid numerical instabilities. The integrated decay width evaluated bythe ANN is within 0.7% of the true value and unweighting efficiency of26% is reached. While the ANN is not automatically bijective betweeninput and output spaces, which can lead to issues with simulationquality, we argue that the training procedure naturally prefersbijective maps, and demonstrate that the trained ANN is bijective to avery goodmore »approximation.« less
  4. Ever since the introduction of thrombolysis and the subsequent expansion of endovascular treatments for acute ischemic stroke, it remains to be identified why the actual outcomes are less favorable despite recanalization. Here, by high spatio-temporal resolution imaging of capillary circulation in mice, we introduce the pathological phenomenon of dynamic flow stalls in cerebral capillaries, occurring persistently in salvageable penumbra after reperfusion. These stalls, which are different from permanent cellular plugs of no-reflow, were temporarily and repetitively occurring in the capillary network, impairing the overall circulation like small focal traffic jams. In vivo microscopy in the ischemic penumbra revealed leukocytes travelingmore »slowly through capillary lumen or getting stuck, while red blood cell flow was being disturbed in the neighboring segments under reperfused conditions. Stall dynamics could be modulated, by injection of an anti-Ly6G antibody specifically targeting neutrophils. Decreased number and duration of stalls were associated with improvement in penumbral blood flow within 2–24 h after reperfusion along with increased capillary oxygenation, decreased cellular damage and improved functional outcome. Thereby, dynamic microcirculatory stall phenomenon can be a contributing factor to ongoing penumbral injury and is a potential hyperacute mechanism adding on previous observations of detrimental effects of activated neutrophils in ischemic stroke.« less
  5. Abstract

    In this work, we introduce a roll-to-roll system that can continuously print three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures over large areas. This approach is based on Langmuir-Blodgett assembly of colloidal nanospheres, which diffract normal incident light to create a complex intensity pattern for near-field nanolithography. The geometry of the 3D nanostructure is defined by the Talbot effect and can be precisely designed by tuning the ratio of the nanosphere diameter to the exposure wavelength. Using this system, we have demonstrated patterning of 3D photonic crystals with a 500 nm period on a 50 × 200 mm2flexible substrate, with a system throughput of 3 mm/s. The patterningmore »yield is quantitatively analyzed by an automated electron beam inspection method, demonstrating long-term repeatability of an up to 88% yield over a 4-month period. The inspection method can also be employed to examine pattern uniformity, achieving an average yield of up to 78.6% over full substrate areas. The proposed patterning method is highly versatile and scalable as a nanomanufacturing platform and can find application in nanophotonics, nanoarchitected materials, and multifunctional nanostructures.

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  6. Thermoflexus hugenholtzii JAD2 T , the only cultured representative of the Chloroflexota order Thermoflexales , is abundant in Great Boiling Spring (GBS), NV, United States, and close relatives inhabit geothermal systems globally. However, no defined medium exists for T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T and no single carbon source is known to support its growth, leaving key knowledge gaps in its metabolism and nutritional needs. Here, we report comparative genomic analysis of the draft genome of T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T and eight closely related metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from geothermal sites in China, Japan, and the United States, representing “ Candidatus Thermoflexus japonica,”more »“ Candidatus Thermoflexus tengchongensis,” and “ Candidatus Thermoflexus sinensis.” Genomics was integrated with targeted exometabolomics and 13 C metabolic probing of T. hugenholtzii . The Thermoflexus genomes each code for complete central carbon metabolic pathways and an unusually high abundance and diversity of peptidases, particularly Metallo- and Serine peptidase families, along with ABC transporters for peptides and some amino acids. The T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T exometabolome provided evidence of extracellular proteolytic activity based on the accumulation of free amino acids. However, several neutral and polar amino acids appear not to be utilized, based on their accumulation in the medium and the lack of annotated transporters. Adenine and adenosine were scavenged, and thymine and nicotinic acid were released, suggesting interdependency with other organisms in situ . Metabolic probing of T. hugenholtzii JAD2 T using 13 C-labeled compounds provided evidence of oxidation of glucose, pyruvate, cysteine, and citrate, and functioning glycolytic, tricarboxylic acid (TCA), and oxidative pentose-phosphate pathways (PPPs). However, differential use of position-specific 13 C-labeled compounds showed that glycolysis and the TCA cycle were uncoupled. Thus, despite the high abundance of Thermoflexus in sediments of some geothermal systems, they appear to be highly focused on chemoorganotrophy, particularly protein degradation, and may interact extensively with other microorganisms in situ .« less
  7. Cameron Thrash, J. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Hydrologic changes modify microbial community structure and ecosystem functions, especially in wetland systems. Here, we present 24 metagenomes from a coastal freshwater wetland experiment in which we manipulated hydrologic conditions and plant presence. These wetland soil metagenomes will deepen our understanding of how hydrology and vegetation influence microbial functional diversity.