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  1. Self-supervised training methods for transformers have demonstrated remarkable performance across various domains. Previous transformer-based models, such as masked autoencoders (MAE), typically utilize a single normalization layer for both the [CLS] symbol and the tokens. We propose in this paper a simple modification that employs separate normalization layers for the tokens and the [CLS] symbol to better capture their distinct characteristics and enhance downstream task performance. Our method aims to alleviate the potential negative effects of using the same normalization statistics for both token types, which may not be optimally aligned with their individual roles. We empirically show that by utilizing a separate normalization layer, the [CLS] embeddings can better encode the global contextual information and are distributed more uniformly in its anisotropic space. When replacing the conventional normalization layer with the two separate layers, we observe an average 2.7% performance improvement over the image, natural language, and graph domains. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 10, 2024
  2. Self-supervised training methods for transformers have demonstrated remarkable performance across various domains. Previous transformer-based models, such as masked autoencoders (MAE), typically utilize a single normalization layer for both the [CLS] symbol and the tokens. We propose in this paper a simple modification that employs separate normalization layers for the tokens and the [CLS] symbol to better capture their distinct characteristics and enhance downstream task performance. Our method aims to alleviate the potential negative effects of using the same normalization statistics for both token types, which may not be optimally aligned with their individual roles. We empirically show that by utilizing a separate normalization layer, the [CLS] embeddings can better encode the global contextual information and are distributed more uniformly in its anisotropic space. When replacing the conventional normalization layer with the two separate layers, we observe an average 2.7% performance improvement over the image, natural language, and graph domains. 
    more » « less
  3. Diffusion-based graph generative models are effective in generating high-quality small graphs. However, it is hard to scale them to large graphs that contain thousands of nodes. In this work, we propose EDGE, a new diffusion-based graph generative model that addresses generative tasks for large graphs. The model is developed by reversing a discrete diffusion process that randomly removes edges until obtaining an empty graph. It leverages graph sparsity in the diffusion process to improve computational efficiency. In particular, EDGE only focuses on a small portion of graph nodes and only adds edges between these nodes. Without compromising modeling ability, it makes much fewer edge predictions than previous diffusion-based generative models. Furthermore, EDGE can explicitly model the node degrees of training graphs and then gain performance improvement in capturing graph statistics. The empirical study shows that EDGE is much more efficient than competing methods and can generate large graphs with thousands of nodes. It also outperforms baseline models in generation quality: graphs generated by the proposed model have graph statistics more similar to those of training graphs. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 23, 2024
  4. Diffusion-based graph generative models are effective in generating high-quality small graphs. However, it is hard to scale them to large graphs that contain thousands of nodes. In this work, we propose EDGE, a new diffusion-based graph generative model that addresses generative tasks for large graphs. The model is developed by reversing a discrete diffusion process that randomly removes edges until obtaining an empty graph. It leverages graph sparsity in the diffusion process to improve computational efficiency. In particular, EDGE only focuses on a small portion of graph nodes and only adds edges between these nodes. Without compromising modeling ability, it makes much fewer edge predictions than previous diffusion-based generative models. Furthermore, EDGE can explicitly model the node degrees of training graphs and then gain performance improvement in capturing graph statistics. The empirical study shows that EDGE is much more efficient than competing methods and can generate large graphs with thousands of nodes. It also outperforms baseline models in generation quality: graphs generated by the proposed model have graph statistics more similar to those of training graphs. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 23, 2024
  5. Zhou, Mingyuan (Ed.)
    We consider the problem of fitting autoregressive graph generative models via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). MLE is intractable for graph autoregressive models because the nodes in a graph can be arbitrarily reordered; thus the exact likelihood involves a sum over all possible node orders leading to the same graph. In this work, we fit the graph models by maximizing a variational bound, which is built by first deriving the joint probability over the graph and the node order of the autoregressive process. This approach avoids the need to specify ad-hoc node orders, since an inference network learns the most likely node sequences that have generated a given graph. We improve the approach by developing a graph generative model based on attention mechanisms and an inference network based on routing search. We demonstrate empirically that fitting autoregressive graph models via variational inference improves their qualitative and quantitative performance, and the improved model and inference network further boost the performance. The implementation of the proposed model is publicly available at https://github.com/tufts-ml/Graph-Generation-MLE. 
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