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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2025
  2. This project aims to broaden AI education by developing and studying the efficacy of innovative learning practices and resources for AI education for social good. We have developed three AI learning modules for students to: 1) identify social issues that align with the SDGs in their community (e.g., poverty, hunger, quality education); 2) learn AI through hands-on labs and business applications; and 3) create AI-powered solutions in teams to address social is-sues they have identified. Student teams are expected to situate AI learning in their communities and contribute to their communities. Students then use the modules to en-gage in an interdisciplinary approach, facilitating AI learn-ing for social good in informational sciences and technology, geography, and computer science at three CSU HSIs (San Jose State University, Cal Poly Pomona and CSU San Bernardino). Finally, we aim to evaluate the efficacy and impact of the proposed AI teaching methods and activities in terms of learning outcomes, student experience, student engagement, and equity.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 21, 2025
  3. Abstract

    Redox is a unique, programmable modality capable of bridging communication between biology and electronics. Previous studies have shown that theE. coliredox-responsive OxyRS regulon can be re-wired to accept electrochemically generated hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as an inducer of gene expression. Here we report that the redox-active phenolic plant signaling molecule acetosyringone (AS) can also induce gene expression from the OxyRS regulon. AS must be oxidized, however, as the reduced state present under normal conditions cannot induce gene expression. Thus, AS serves as a “pro-signaling molecule” that can be activated by its oxidation—in our case by application of oxidizing potential to an electrode. We show that the OxyRS regulon is not induced electrochemically if the imposed electrode potential is in the mid-physiological range. Electronically sliding the applied potential to either oxidative or reductive extremes induces this regulon but through different mechanisms: reduction of O2to form H2O2or oxidation of AS. Fundamentally, this work reinforces the emerging concept that redox signaling depends more on molecular activities than molecular structure. From an applications perspective, the creation of an electronically programmed “pro-signal” dramatically expands the toolbox for electronic control of biological responses in microbes, including in complex environments, cell-based materials, and biomanufacturing.

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  4. Quantum defects in single-walled carbon nanotubes promote exciton localization, which enables potential applications in biodevices and quantum light sources. However, the effects of local electric fields on the emissive energy states of quantum defects and how they can be controlled are unexplored. Here, we investigate quantum defect sensitization by engineering an intrinsically disordered protein to undergo a phase change at a quantum defect site. We designed a supercharged single-chain antibody fragment (scFv) to enable a full ligand-induced folding transition from an intrinsically disordered state to a compact folded state in the presence of a cytokine. The supercharged scFv was conjugated to a quantum defect to induce a substantial local electric change upon ligand binding. Employing the detection of a proinflammatory biomarker, interleukin-6, as a representative model system, supercharged scFv-coupled quantum defects exhibited robust fluorescence wavelength shifts concomitant with the protein folding transition. Quantum chemical simulations suggest that the quantum defects amplify the optical response to the localization of charges produced upon the antigen-induced folding of the proteins, which is difficult to achieve in unmodified nanotubes. These findings portend new approaches to modulate quantum defect emission for biomarker sensing and protein biophysics and to engineer proteins to modulate binding signal transduction. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 8, 2025
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 20, 2025
  6. Utilizing the framework of\mathbb{Z}_22lattice gauge theories in the context of Pauli stabilizer codes, we present methodologies for simulating fermions via qubit systems on a two-dimensional square lattice. We investigate the symplectic automorphisms of the Pauli module over the Laurent polynomial ring. This enables us to systematically increase the code distances of stabilizer codes while fixing the rate between encoded logical fermions and physical qubits. We identify a family of stabilizer codes suitable for fermion simulation, achieving code distances of d=2,3,4,5,6,7, allowing correction of any\lfloor \frac{d-1}{2} \rfloord12-qubit error. In contrast to the traditional code concatenation approach, our method can increase the code distances without decreasing the (fermionic) code rate. In particular, we explicitly show all stabilizers and logical operators for codes with code distances of d=3,4,5. We provide syndromes for all Pauli errors and invent a syndrome-matching algorithm to compute code distances numerically.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 26, 2025
  7. Abstract

    Microelectronic devices can directly communicate with biology, as electronic information can be transmitted via redox reactions within biological systems. By engineering biology’s native redox networks, we enable electronic interrogation and control of biological systems at several hierarchical levels: proteins, cells, and cell consortia. First, electro-biofabrication facilitates on-device biological component assembly. Then, electrode-actuated redox data transmission and redox-linked synthetic biology allows programming of enzyme activity and closed-loop electrogenetic control of cellular function. Specifically, horseradish peroxidase is assembled onto interdigitated electrodes where electrode-generated hydrogen peroxide controls its activity.E. coli’s stress response regulon,oxyRS, is rewired to enable algorithm-based feedback control of gene expression, including an eCRISPR module that switches cell-cell quorum sensing communication from one autoinducer to another—creating an electronically controlled ‘bilingual’ cell. Then, these disparate redox-guided devices are wirelessly connected, enabling real-time communication and user-based control. We suggest these methodologies will help us to better understand and develop sophisticated control for biology.

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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 15, 2024