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  1. Abstract

    In this work, we publish stellar velocity dispersions, sizes, and dynamical masses for eight ultramassive galaxies (UMGs;log(M*/M)> 11),z≳ 3) from the Massive Ancient Galaxies Atz> 3 NEar-infrared (MAGAZ3NE) Survey, more than doubling the number of such galaxies with velocity dispersion measurements at this epoch. Using the deep Keck/MOSFIRE and Keck/NIRES spectroscopy of these objects in theHandKbandpasses, we obtain large velocity dispersions of ∼400 km s−1for most of the objects, which are some of the highest stellar velocity dispersions measured and ∼40% larger than those measured for galaxies of similar mass atz∼ 1.7. The sizes of these objects are also smaller by a factor of 1.5–3 compared to this samez∼ 1.7 sample. We combine these large velocity dispersions and small sizes to obtain dynamical masses. The dynamical masses are similar to the stellar masses of these galaxies, consistent with a Chabrier initial mass function (IMF). Considered alongside previous studies of massive quiescent galaxies across 0.2 <z< 4.0, there is evidence for an evolution in the relation between the dynamical mass–stellar mass ratio and velocity dispersion as a function of redshift. This implies an IMF with fewer low-mass stars (e.g., Chabrier IMF) for massive quiescentmore »galaxies at higher redshifts in conflict with the bottom-heavy IMF (e.g., Salpeter IMF) found in their likelyz∼ 0 descendants, though a number of alternative explanations such as a different dynamical structure or significant rotation are not ruled out. Similar to data at lower redshifts, we see evidence for an increase of IMF normalization with velocity dispersion, though thez≳ 3 trend is steeper than that forz∼ 0.2 early-type galaxies and offset to lower dynamical-to-stellar mass ratios.

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  2. Abstract We present spatially resolved Hubble Space Telescope grism spectroscopy of 15 galaxies at z ∼ 0.8 drawn from the DEEP2 survey. We analyze H α +[N ii ], [S ii ], and [S iii ] emission on kiloparsec scales to explore which mechanisms are powering emission lines at high redshifts, testing which processes may be responsible for the well-known offset of high-redshift galaxies from the z ∼ 0 locus in the [O iii ]/H β versus [N ii ]/H α Baldwin—Phillips—Terlevich (BPT) excitation diagram. We study spatially resolved emission-line maps to examine evidence for active galactic nuclei (AGN), shocks, diffuse ionized gas (DIG), or escaping ionizing radiation, all of which may contribute to the BPT offsets observed in our sample. We do not find significant evidence of AGN in our sample and quantify that, on average, AGN would need to contribute ∼25% of the H α flux in the central resolution element in order to cause the observed BPT offsets. We find weak (2 σ ) evidence of DIG emission at low surface brightnesses, yielding an implied total DIG emission fraction of ∼20%, which is not significant enough to be the dominant emission line driver in our sample. Inmore »general we find that the observed emission is dominated by star-forming H ii regions. We discuss trends with demographic properties and the possible role of α -enhanced abundance patterns in the emission spectra of high-redshift galaxies. Our results indicate that photoionization modeling with stellar population synthesis inputs is a valid tool to explore the specific star formation properties which may cause BPT offsets, to be explored in future work.« less
  3. ABSTRACT

    We model satellite quenching at z ∼ 1 by combining 14 massive (1013.8 < Mhalo/M⊙ < 1015) clusters at 0.8 < z < 1.3 from the GOGREEN and GCLASS surveys with accretion histories of 56 redshift-matched analogues from the IllustrisTNG simulation. Our fiducial model, which is parametrized by the satellite quenching time-scale (τquench), accounts for quenching in our simulated satellite population both at the time of infall by using the observed coeval field quenched fraction and after infall by tuning τquench to reproduce the observed satellite quenched fraction versus stellar mass trend. This model successfully reproduces the observed satellite quenched fraction as a function of stellar mass (by construction), projected cluster-centric radius, and redshift and is consistent with the observed field and cluster stellar mass functions at z ∼ 1. We find that the satellite quenching time-scale is mass dependent, in conflict with some previous studies at low and intermediate redshift. Over the stellar mass range probed (M⋆ > 1010 M⊙), we find that the satellite quenching time-scale decreases with increasing satellite stellar mass from ∼1.6 Gyr at 1010 M⊙ to ∼0.6−1 Gyr at 1011 M⊙ and is roughly consistent with the total cold gas (HI + H2) depletion time-scales at intermediate z, suggesting that starvationmore »may be the dominant driver of environmental quenching at z < 2. Finally, while environmental mechanisms are relatively efficient at quenching massive satellites, we find that the majority ($\sim 65{\!-\!}80{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) of ultra-massive satellites (M⋆ > 1011 M⊙) are quenched prior to infall.

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  4. Abstract

    We present the Local Volume Complete Cluster Survey (LoVoCCS; we pronounce it as “low-vox” or “law-vox,” with stress on the second syllable), an NSF’s National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory survey program that uses the Dark Energy Camera to map the dark matter distribution and galaxy population in 107 nearby (0.03 <z< 0.12) X-ray luminous ([0.1–2.4 keV]LX500> 1044erg s−1) galaxy clusters that are not obscured by the Milky Way. The survey will reach Vera C. Rubin Observatory Legacy Survey of Space and Time (LSST) Year 1–2 depth (for galaxiesr= 24.5,i= 24.0, signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 20;u= 24.7,g= 25.3,z= 23.8, S/N > 10) and conclude in ∼2023 (coincident with the beginning of LSST science operations), and will serve as a zeroth-year template for LSST transient studies. We process the data using the LSST Science Pipelines that include state-of-the-art algorithms and analyze the results using our own pipelines, and therefore the catalogs and analysis tools will be compatible with the LSST. We demonstrate the use and performance of our pipeline using three X-ray luminous and observation-time complete LoVoCCS clusters: A3911, A3921, and A85. A3911 and A3921 have not been well studied previously by weak lensing, and we obtain similar lensing analysis resultsmore »for A85 to previous studies. (We mainly use A3911 to show our pipeline and give more examples in the Appendix.)

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  5. ABSTRACT Observations suggest that satellite quenching plays a major role in the build-up of passive, low-mass galaxies at late cosmic times. Studies of low-mass satellites, however, are limited by the ability to robustly characterize the local environment and star formation activity of faint systems. In an effort to overcome the limitations of existing data sets, we utilize deep photometry in Stripe 82 of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, in conjunction with a neural network classification scheme, to study the suppression of star formation in low-mass satellite galaxies in the local Universe. Using a statistically driven approach, we are able to push beyond the limits of existing spectroscopic data sets, measuring the satellite quenched fraction down to satellite stellar masses of ∼107 M⊙ in group environments (Mhalo = 1013−14 h−1 M⊙). At high satellite stellar masses (≳1010 M⊙), our analysis successfully reproduces existing measurements of the quenched fraction based on spectroscopic samples. Pushing to lower masses, we find that the fraction of passive satellites increases, potentially signalling a change in the dominant quenching mechanism at M⋆ ∼ 109 M⊙. Similar to the results of previous studies of the Local Group, this increase in the quenched fraction at low satellite masses may correspond to an increase inmore »the efficacy of ram-pressure stripping as a quenching mechanism in groups.« less
  6. Abstract

    We report the discovery of MAGAZ3NE J095924+022537, a spectroscopically confirmed protocluster atz=3.36650.0012+0.0009around a spectroscopically confirmedUVJ-quiescent ultramassive galaxy (UMG;M=2.340.34+0.23×1011M) in the COSMOS UltraVISTA field. We present a total of 38 protocluster members (14 spectroscopic and 24 photometric), including the UMG. Notably, and in marked contrast to protoclusters previously reported at this epoch that have been found to contain predominantly star-forming members, we measure an elevated fraction of quiescent galaxies relative to the coeval field (73.316.9+26.7%versus11.64.9+7.1%for galaxies with stellar massM≥ 1011M). This high quenched fraction provides a striking and important counterexample to the seeming ubiquitousness of star-forming galaxies in protoclusters atz> 2 and suggests, rather, that protoclusters exist in a diversity of evolutionary states in the early universe. We discuss the possibility that we might be observing either “early mass quenching” or nonclassical “environmental quenching.” We also present the discovery of MAGAZ3NE J100028+023349, a second spectroscopically confirmed protocluster, at a very similar redshift ofz=3.38010.0281+0.0213. We present a total of 20 protocluster members, 12 of which are photometric and eight spectroscopic including a poststarburst UMG (M=2.950.20+0.21×1011M). Protoclusters MAGAZ3NE J0959more »and MAGAZ3NE J1000 are separated by 18′ on the sky (35 comoving Mpc), in good agreement with predictions from simulations for the size of “Coma”-type cluster progenitors at this epoch. It is highly likely that the two UMGs are the progenitors of Brightest Cluster Galaxies seen in massive virialized clusters at lower redshift.

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  7. ABSTRACT We measure the rate of environmentally driven star formation quenching in galaxies at z ∼ 1, using eleven massive ($M\approx 2\times 10^{14}\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$) galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 1.0 < z < 1.4 from the GOGREEN sample. We identify three different types of transition galaxies: ‘green valley’ (GV) galaxies identified from their rest-frame (NUV − V) and (V − J) colours; ‘blue quiescent’ (BQ) galaxies, found at the blue end of the quiescent sequence in (U − V) and (V − J) colour; and spectroscopic post-starburst (PSB) galaxies. We measure the abundance of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass and environment. For high-stellar mass galaxies (log M/M⊙ > 10.5) we do not find any significant excess of transition galaxies in clusters, relative to a comparison field sample at the same redshift. It is likely that such galaxies were quenched prior to their accretion in the cluster, in group, filament, or protocluster environments. For lower stellar mass galaxies (9.5 < log M/M⊙ < 10.5) there is a small but significant excess of transition galaxies in clusters, accounting for an additional ∼5–10 per cent of the population compared with the field. We show that our data are consistent with a scenario inmore »which 20–30 per cent of low-mass, star-forming galaxies in clusters are environmentally quenched every Gyr, and that this rate slowly declines from z = 1 to z = 0. While environmental quenching of these galaxies may include a long delay time during which star formation declines slowly, in most cases this must end with a rapid (τ < 1 Gyr) decline in star formation rate.« less
  8. Abstract We use photometric redshifts and statistical background subtraction to measure stellar mass functions in galaxy group-mass (4.5 − 8 × 1013 M⊙) haloes at 1 < z < 1.5. Groups are selected from COSMOS and SXDF, based on X-ray imaging and sparse spectroscopy. Stellar mass (Mstellar) functions are computed for quiescent and star-forming galaxies separately, based on their rest-frame UVJ colours. From these we compute the quiescent fraction and quiescent fraction excess (QFE) relative to the field as a function of Mstellar. QFE increases with Mstellar, similar to more massive clusters at 1 < z < 1.5. This contrasts with the apparent separability of Mstellar and environmental factors on galaxy quiescent fractions at z ∼ 0. We then compare our results with higher mass clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 and lower redshifts. We find a strong QFE dependence on halo mass at fixed Mstellar; well fit by a logarithmic slope of d(QFE)/dlog (Mhalo) ∼ 0.24 ± 0.04 for all Mstellar and redshift bins. This dependence is in remarkably good qualitative agreement with the hydrodynamic simulation BAHAMAS, but contradicts the observed dependence of QFE on Mstellar. We interpret the results using two toy models: one where a time delay untilmore »rapid (instantaneous) quenching begins upon accretion to the main progenitor (“no pre-processing”) and one where it starts upon first becoming a satellite (“pre-processing”). Delay times appear to be halo mass dependent, with a significantly stronger dependence required without pre-processing. We conclude that our results support models in which environmental quenching begins in low-mass (<1014M⊙) haloes at z > 1.« less
  9. Abstract We have modeled the velocity-resolved reverberation response of the H β broad emission line in nine Seyfert 1 galaxies from the Lick Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) Monitoring Project 2016 sample, drawing inferences on the geometry and structure of the low-ionization broad-line region (BLR) and the mass of the central supermassive black hole. Overall, we find that the H β BLR is generally a thick disk viewed at low to moderate inclination angles. We combine our sample with prior studies and investigate line-profile shape dependence, such as log 10 ( FWHM / σ ) , on BLR structure and kinematics and search for any BLR luminosity-dependent trends. We find marginal evidence for an anticorrelation between the profile shape of the broad H β emission line and the Eddington ratio, when using the rms spectrum. However, we do not find any luminosity-dependent trends, and conclude that AGNs have diverse BLR structure and kinematics, consistent with the hypothesis of transient AGN/BLR conditions rather than systematic trends.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023