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  1. The prototypical chalcogenide perovskite, BaZrS3 (BZS), with its direct bandgap of 1.7–1.8 eV, high chemical stability, and strong light–matter interactions, has garnered significant interest over the past few years. So far, attempts to grow BaZrS3 films have been limited mainly to physical vapor deposition techniques. Here, we report the fabrication of BZS thin films via a facile aqueous solution route of polymer-assisted deposition (PAD), where the polymer-chelated cation precursor films were sulfurized in a mixed CS2 and Ar atmosphere. The formation of a single-phase polycrystalline BZS thin film at a processing temperature of 900 °C was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the films was verified by Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The BZS films showed a photoluminescence peak at around 1.8 eV and exhibited a photogenerated current under light illumination at a wavelength of 530 nm. Temperature-dependent resistivity analysis revealed that the conduction of BaZrS3 films under the dark condition could be described by the Efros–Shklovskii variable range hopping model in the temperature range of 60–300 K, with an activation energy of about 44 meV. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    The discovery of topological Hall effect (THE) has important implications for next‐generation high‐density nonvolatile memories, energy‐efficient nanoelectronics, and spintronic devices. Both real‐space topological spin configurations and two anomalous Hall effects (AHE) with opposite polarity due to two magnetic phases have been proposed for THE‐like feature in SrRuO3(SRO) films. In this work, SRO thin films with and without THE‐like features are systematically Investigated to decipher the origin of the THE feature. Magnetic measurement reveals the coexistence of two magnetic phases of different coercivity (Hc) in both the films, but the hump feature cannot be explained by the two channel AHE model based on these two magnetic phases. In fact, the AHE is mainly governed by the magnetic phase with higherHc. A diffusive Berry phase transition model is proposed to explain the THE feature. The coexistence of two Berry phases with opposite signs over a narrow temperature range in the high Hc magnetic phase can explain the THE like feature. Such a coexistence of two Berry phases is due to the strong local structural tilt and microstructure variation in the thinner films. This work provides an insight between structure/micro structure and THE like features in SRO epitaxial thin films.

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  4. Abstract

    Interface‐type (IT) resistive switching (RS) memories are promising for next generation memory and computing technologies owing to the filament‐free switching, high on/off ratio, low power consumption, and low spatial variability. Although the switching mechanisms of memristors have been widely studied in filament‐type devices, they are largely unknown in IT memristors. In this work, using the simple Au/Nb:SrTiO3(Nb:STO) as a model Schottky system, it is identified that protons from moisture are key element in determining the RS characteristics in IT memristors. The Au/Nb:STO devices show typical Schottky interface controlled current–voltage (IV) curves with a large on/off ratio under ambient conditions. Surprisingly, in a controlled environment without protons/moisture, the largeIVhysteresis collapses with the disappearance of a high resistance state (HRS) and the Schottky barrier. Once the devices are re‐exposed to a humid environment, the typical largeIVhysteresis can be recovered within hours as the HRS and Schottky interface are restored. The RS mechanism in Au/Nb:STO is attributed to the Schottky barrier modulation by a proton assisted electron trapping and detrapping process. This work highlights the important role of protons/moisture in the RS properties of IT memristors and provides fundamental insight for switching mechanisms in metal oxides‐based memory devices.

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  5. Abstract

    Actinide materials have various applications that range from nuclear energy to quantum computing. Most current efforts have focused on bulk actinide materials. Tuning functional properties by using strain engineering in epitaxial thin films is largely lacking. Using uranium dioxide (UO2) as a model system, in this work, the authors explore strain engineering in actinide epitaxial thin films and investigate the origin of induced ferromagnetism in an antiferromagnet UO2. It is found that UO2+xthin films are hypostoichiometric (x<0) with in‐plane tensile strain, while they are hyperstoichiometric (x>0) with in‐plane compressive strain. Different from strain engineering in non‐actinide oxide thin films, the epitaxial strain in UO2is accommodated by point defects such as vacancies and interstitials due to the low formation energy. Both epitaxial strain and strain relaxation induced point defects such as oxygen/uranium vacancies and oxygen/uranium interstitials can distort magnetic structure and result in magnetic moments. This work reveals the correlation among strain, point defects and ferromagnetism in strain engineered UO2+xthin films and the results offer new opportunities to understand the influence of coupled order parameters on the emergent properties of many other actinide thin films.

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  6. Abstract

    A variety of mechanisms are reported to play critical roles in contributing to the high carrier/electron mobility in oxide/SrTiO3(STO) heterostructures. By using La0.95Sr0.05TiO3(LSTO) epitaxially grown on different single crystal substrates (such as STO, GdScO3, LaAlO3, (LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7, and CeO2buffered STO) as the model systems, the formation of a conducting substrate surface layer (CSSL) on STO substrate is shown at relatively low growth temperature and high oxygen pressure (725 °C, 5 × 10–4 Torr), which contributes to the enhanced conductivity of the LSTO/STO heterostructures. Different from the conventional oxygen vacancy model, this work reveals that the formation of the CSSL occurs when growing an oxide layer (LSTO in this case) on STO, while neither annealing nor the growth of an Au layer alone at the exact same growth condition generates the CSSL in STO. It demonstrates that the oxide layer actively pulls oxygen from STO substrate at given growth conditions, leading to the formation of the CSSL. The observations emphasize the oxygen transfer across film/substrate interface during the synthesis of oxide heterostructures playing a critical role in functional properties.

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