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  1. Abstract

    Current methods of identifying the ionizing source of nebular emission in galaxies are well defined for the era of single-fiber spectroscopy, but still struggle to differentiate the complex and overlapping ionization sources in some galaxies. With the advent of integral field spectroscopy, the limits of these previous classification schemes are more apparent. We propose a new method for distinguishing the ionizing source in resolved galaxy spectra by use of a multidimensional diagnostic diagram that compares emission-line ratios with velocity dispersion on a spaxel-by-spaxel basis within a galaxy. This new method is tested using the Sydney-Australian-Astronomical-Observatory Multi-object Integral-Field Spectrograph Galaxy Survey (SAMI) Data Release 3 (DR3), which contains 3068 galaxies atz< 0.12. Our results are released as ionization maps available alongside the SAMI DR3 public data. Our method accounts for a more diverse range of ionization sources than the standard suite of emission-line diagnostics; we find 1433 galaxies with a significant contribution from non-star-forming ionization using our improved method as compared to 316 galaxies identified using only emission-line ratio diagnostics. Within these galaxies, we further identify 886 galaxies hosting unique signatures inconsistent with standard ionization by Hiiregions, active galactic nuclei, or shocks. These galaxies span a wide range of massesmore »and morphological types and comprise a sizable portion of the galaxies used in our sample. With our revised method, we show that emission-line diagnostics alone do not adequately differentiate the multiple ways to ionize gas within a galaxy.

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    Using the eagle (Evolution and Assembly of GaLaxies and their Environments) suite of simulations, we demonstrate that both cold gas stripping and starvation of gas inflow play an important role in quenching satellite galaxies across a range of stellar and halo masses, M⋆ and M200. Quantifying the balance between gas inflows, outflows, and star formation rates, we show that even at z = 2, only $\approx 30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of satellite galaxies are able to maintain equilibrium or grow their reservoir of cool gas – compared to $\approx 50{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of central galaxies at this redshift. We find that the number of orbits completed by a satellite on first-infall to a group environment is a very good predictor of its quenching, even more so than the time since infall. On average, we show that intermediate-mass satellites with M⋆ between will be quenched at $10^{9}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }\, {\rm and}\, 10^{10}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$ first pericenter in massive group environments, $M_{200}\gt 10^{13.5}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$; and will be quenched at second pericenter in less massive group environments, $M_{200}\lt 10^{13.5}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$. On average, more massive satellites ($M_{\star }\gt 10^{10}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$) experience longer depletion time-scales, beingmore »quenched between first and second pericenters in massive groups, while in smaller group environments, just $\approx 30{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ will be quenched even after two orbits. Our results suggest that while starvation alone may be enough to slowly quench satellite galaxies, direct gas stripping, particularly at pericenters, is required to produce the short quenching time-scales exhibited in the simulation.

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    We present SAMI-H i, a survey of the atomic hydrogen content of 296 galaxies with integral field spectroscopy available from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. The sample spans nearly 4 dex in stellar mass ($M_\star = 10^{7.4}-10^{11.1}~ \rm M_\odot$), redshift z < 0.06, and includes new Arecibo observations of 153 galaxies, for which we release catalogues and H i spectra. We use these data to compare the rotational velocities obtained from optical and radio observations and to show how systematic differences affect the slope and scatter of the stellar-mass and baryonic Tully–Fisher relations. Specifically, we show that $\rm H\alpha$ rotational velocities measured in the inner parts of galaxies (1.3 effective radii in this work) systematically underestimate H i global measurements, with H i/$\rm H\alpha$ velocity ratios that increase at low stellar masses, where rotation curves are typically still rising and $\rm H\alpha$ measurements do not reach their plateau. As a result, the $\rm H\alpha$ stellar mass Tully–Fisher relation is steeper (when M⋆ is the independent variable) and has larger scatter than its H i counterpart. Interestingly, we confirm the presence of a small fraction of low-mass outliers of the $\rm H\alpha$ relation that are not present when H i velocity widths are used and are not explainedmore »by ‘aperture effects’. These appear to be highly disturbed systems for which $\rm H\alpha$ widths do not provide a reliable estimate of the rotational velocity. Our analysis reaffirms the importance of taking into account differences in velocity definitions as well as tracers used when interpreting offsets from the Tully–Fisher relation, at both low and high redshifts and when comparing with simulations.

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  4. Abstract

    Wetlands in the Mississippi River Delta are rapidly degrading. Sea level rise and low sediment supply are widely recognized as the two main factors contributing to land‐to‐water conversion. To determine what marsh areas are more resilient, it is fundamental to identify the drivers that regulate marsh accretion and degradation. In this study, a combination of field data and aerial images is used to determine these drivers in Terrebonne Bay, Louisiana, USA. We find that accretion and degradation patterns depend on whether the marsh is located inland in a sheltered area or facing open water. In the first case, the distance to the nearby channel is important, because during flooding of the marsh platform more sediment is deposited in the proximity of channel banks. The accretion rates of marshes facing open water are high and correlate to fetch, a proxy for the ability of waves to resuspend bottom sediment. These areas are more resilient to sea level rise, but waves are also the main mechanism of degradation, as these marshes tend to degrade by edge erosion. Consequently, we propose a bimodal evolution trajectory of the marshes in Terrebonne Bay: marshes close to the bay and facing open water accrete rapidlymore »but are affected by lateral erosion due to waves, whereas sheltered marshes accrete slowly and degrade in large swathes due to insufficient sediment supply.

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  5. Abstract

    We measure the molecular-to-atomic gas ratio,Rmol, and the star formation rate (SFR) per unit molecular gas mass, SFEmol, in 38 nearby galaxies selected from the Virgo Environment Traced in CO (VERTICO) survey. We stack ALMA12CO (J= 2−1) spectra coherently using Hivelocities from the VIVA survey to detect faint CO emission out to galactocentric radiirgal∼ 1.2r25. We determine the scale lengths for the molecular and stellar components, finding a ∼3:5 relation compared to ∼1:1 in field galaxies, indicating that the CO emission is more centrally concentrated than the stars. We computeRmolas a function of different physical quantities. While the spatially resolvedRmolon average decreases with increasing radius, we find that the mean molecular-to-atomic gas ratio within the stellar effective radiusRe,Rmol(r<Re), shows a systematic increase with the level of Hi, truncation and/or asymmetry (HIperturbation). Analysis of the molecular- and the atomic-to-stellar mass ratios withinRe,Rmol(r<Re)andRatom(r<Re), shows that VERTICO galaxies have increasingly lowerRatom(r<Re)for larger levels of HIperturbation (compared to field galaxies matched in stellar mass), but no significant change inRmol(r<Re). We also measure a clear systematic decrease of the SFEmolwithinRe, SFEmol(r<Re),more »with increasingly perturbed Hi. Therefore, compared to field galaxies from the field, VERTICO galaxies are more compact in CO emission in relation to their stellar distribution, but increasingly perturbed atomic gas increases theirRmoland decreases the efficiency with which their molecular gas forms stars.

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    Ram pressure stripping (RPS) is an important mechanism for galaxy evolution. In this work, we present results from HST and APEX observations of one RPS galaxy, ESO 137-002 in the closest rich cluster Abell 3627. The galaxy is known to host prominent X-ray and H α tails. The HST data reveal significant features indicative of RPS in the galaxy, including asymmetric distribution of dust in the galaxy, dust filaments, and dust clouds in ablation generally aligned with the direction of ram pressure, and young star clusters immediately upstream of the residual dust clouds that suggest star formation (SF) triggered by RPS. The distribution of the molecular gas is asymmetric in the galaxy, with no CO upstream and abundant CO downstream and in the inner tail region. A total amount of ∼5.5 × 109 M⊙ of molecular gas is detected in the galaxy and its tail. On the other hand, we do not detect any active SF in the X-ray and H α tails of ESO 137-002 with the HST data and place a limit on the SF efficiency in the tail. Hence, if selected by SF behind the galaxy in the optical or UV (e.g. surveys like GASP or using the Galex data), ESO 137-002more »will not be considered a ‘jellyfish’ galaxy. Thus, galaxies like ESO 137-002 are important for our comprehensive understanding of RPS galaxies and the evolution of the stripped material. ESO 137-002 also presents a great example of an edge-on galaxy experiencing a nearly edge-on RPS wind.

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  7. ABSTRACT The kinematic morphology–density relation of galaxies is normally attributed to a changing distribution of galaxy stellar masses with the local environment. However, earlier studies were largely focused on slow rotators; the dynamical properties of the overall population in relation to environment have received less attention. We use the SAMI Galaxy Survey to investigate the dynamical properties of ∼1800 early and late-type galaxies with log (M⋆/M⊙) > 9.5 as a function of mean environmental overdensity (Σ5) and their rank within a group or cluster. By classifying galaxies into fast and slow rotators, at fixed stellar mass above log (M⋆/M⊙) > 10.5, we detect a higher fraction (∼3.4σ) of slow rotators for group and cluster centrals and satellites as compared to isolated-central galaxies. We find similar results when using Σ5 as a tracer for environment. Focusing on the fast-rotator population, we also detect a significant correlation between galaxy kinematics and their stellar mass as well as the environment they are in. Specifically, by using inclination-corrected or intrinsic $\lambda _{R_{\rm {e}}}$ values, we find that, at fixed mass, satellite galaxies on average have the lowest $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$, isolated-central galaxies have the highest $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$, and group and clustermore »centrals lie in between. Similarly, galaxies in high-density environments have lower mean $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$ values as compared to galaxies at low environmental density. However, at fixed Σ5, the mean $\lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}}$ differences for low and high-mass galaxies are of similar magnitude as when varying Σ5 ($\Delta \lambda _{\, R_{\rm {e}},\rm {intr}} \sim 0.05$, with σrandom = 0.025, and σsyst < 0.03). Our results demonstrate that after stellar mass, environment plays a significant role in the creation of slow rotators, while for fast rotators we also detect an independent, albeit smaller, impact of mass and environment on their kinematic properties.« less
  8. ABSTRACT We present a comparison of galaxy atomic and molecular gas properties in three recent cosmological hydrodynamic simulations, namely SIMBA, EAGLE, and IllustrisTNG, versus observations from z ∼ 0 to 2. These simulations all rely on similar subresolution prescriptions to model cold interstellar gas that they cannot represent directly, and qualitatively reproduce the observed z ≈ 0 H i and H2 mass functions (HIMFs and H2MFs, respectively), CO(1–0) luminosity functions (COLFs), and gas scaling relations versus stellar mass, specific star formation rate, and stellar surface density μ*, with some quantitative differences. To compare to the COLF, we apply an H2-to-CO conversion factor to the simulated galaxies based on their average molecular surface density and metallicity, yielding substantial variations in αCO and significant differences between models. Using this, predicted z = 0 COLFs agree better with data than predicted H2MFs. Out to z ∼ 2, EAGLE’s and SIMBA’s HIMFs and COLFs strongly increase, while IllustrisTNG’s HIMF declines and COLF evolves slowly. EAGLE and simba reproduce high-LCO(1–0) galaxies at z ∼ 1–2 as observed, owing partly to a median αCO(z = 2) ∼ 1 versus αCO(z = 0) ∼ 3. Examining H i, H2, and CO scaling relations, their trends with M* are broadly reproduced inmore »all models, but EAGLE yields too little H i in green valley galaxies, IllustrisTNG and SIMBA overproduce cold gas in massive galaxies, and SIMBA overproduces molecular gas in small systems. Using SIMBA variants that exclude individual active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback modules, we find that SIMBA’s AGN jet feedback is primarily responsible by lowering cold gas contents from z ∼ 1 → 0 by suppressing cold gas in $M_*\gtrsim 10^{10}{\rm \,M}_\odot$ galaxies, while X-ray feedback suppresses the formation of high-μ* systems.« less

    We investigate the mean locally measured velocity dispersions of ionized gas (σgas) and stars (σ*) for 1090 galaxies with stellar masses $\log \, (M_{\!\ast }/M_{\odot }) \ge 9.5$ from the SAMI Galaxy Survey. For star-forming galaxies, σ* tends to be larger than σgas, suggesting that stars are in general dynamically hotter than the ionized gas (asymmetric drift). The difference between σgas and σ* (Δσ) correlates with various galaxy properties. We establish that the strongest correlation of Δσ is with beam smearing, which inflates σgas more than σ*, introducing a dependence of Δσ on both the effective radius relative to the point spread function and velocity gradients. The second strongest correlation is with the contribution of active galactic nuclei (AGN) (or evolved stars) to the ionized gas emission, implying that the gas velocity dispersion is strongly affected by the power source. In contrast, using the velocity dispersion measured from integrated spectra (σap) results in less correlation between the aperture-based Δσ (Δσap) and the power source. This suggests that the AGN (or old stars) dynamically heat the gas without causing significant deviations from dynamical equilibrium. Although the variation of Δσap is much smaller than that of Δσ, a correlation between Δσapmore »and gas velocity gradient is still detected, implying that there is a small bias in dynamical masses derived from stellar and ionized gas velocity dispersions.

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  10. ABSTRACT We measure the gas-phase metallicity gradients of 248 galaxies selected from Data Release 2 of the SAMI Galaxy Survey. We demonstrate that there are large systematic discrepancies between the metallicity gradients derived using common strong emission line metallicity diagnostics. We determine which pairs of diagnostics have Spearman’s rank coefficients greater than 0.6 and provide linear conversions to allow the accurate comparison of metallicity gradients derived using different strong emission line diagnostics. For galaxies within the mass range 8.5 < log (M/M⊙) < 11.0, we find discrepancies of up to 0.11 dex/Re between seven popular diagnostics in the metallicity gradient–mass relation. We find a suggestion of a break in the metallicity gradient–mass relation, where the slope shifts from negative to positive, occurs between 9.5 < log (M/M⊙) < 10.5 for the seven chosen diagnostics. Applying our conversions to the metallicity gradient–mass relation, we reduce the maximum dispersion from 0.11 dex/Re to 0.02 dex/Re. These conversions provide the most accurate method of converting metallicity gradients when key emission lines are unavailable. We find that diagnostics that share common sets of emission line ratios agree best, and that diagnostics calibrated through the electron temperature provide more consistent results compared to those calibrated through photoionization models.