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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  2. The principle of the conventional ultrasound test states that the detectable voids cannot be smaller than the acoustic wavelength. However, by using effective medium approximation, the fraction of small voids can be estimated by the variation of the effective density. In this study, a non-contacting ultrasound-based porosity fraction mapping methodology is developed for estimated small voids in coal with long operating wavelength in air. This novel ultrasonic technique based on the mechanical properties of coal offers a rapid scan of the effective density mapping and distribution of void fraction over a large sample area, which overcame the limitation of small voids detection in the conventional ultrasound testing. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 21, 2024
  3. The functionality of thermally active phononic crystals (PnC) and metamaterials can be greatly enhanced by utilizing the temperature-dependent physical characteristics of heat-sensitive materials within the periodic structure. The phase transformation between water and ice occurs within a narrow range of temperatures that can lead to significant changes in its acoustic transmission due to the modification of the elastic properties of periodic phononic structures in an aqueous medium. A phononic crystal with acrylic scatterers in water is designed to function as an acoustic filter, beam splitter, or lensing based on the device’s temperature due to changes in the phase of the ambient medium. The transition from room temperature to freezing point reduces the contrast in acoustic properties between the ice-lattice and the scatterer materials (acrylic) and switches off the metamaterial of the water-based PnC. The numerically simulated equi-frequency contours and wave propagation characteristics demonstrate the switchable meta-material to the periodic phononic structure’s normal behavior due to the phase transition of water. Effects such as Van Hove’s singularity and filamentation-like effects in an acoustic meta-material system can be thermally tuned. 
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  4. null (Ed.)
    Abstract Rapid thermokinetics associated with laser-based additive manufacturing produces strong bulk crystallographic texture in the printed component. The present study identifies such a bulk texture effect on elastic anisotropy in laser powder bed fused Ti6Al4V by employing an effective bulk modulus elastography technique coupled with ultrasound shear wave velocity measurement at a frequency of 20 MHz inside the material. The combined technique identified significant attenuation of shear velocity from 3322 ± 20.12 to 3240 ± 21.01 m/s at 45 $$^\circ$$ ∘ and 90 $$^\circ$$ ∘ orientations of shear wave plane with respect to the build plane of printed block of Ti6Al4V. Correspondingly, the reduction in shear modulus from 48.46 ± 0.82 to 46.40 ± 0.88 GPa was obtained at these orientations. Such attenuation is rationalized based on the orientations of $$\alpha ^\prime$$ α ′ crystallographic variants within prior columnar $$\beta$$ β grains in additively manufactured Ti6Al4V. 
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  5. Metals are excellent conductors for phonon transportation such as vibration, sound, and heat. Generally, metal sound insulators require multimaterial structure or defects and unimetal sound insulators are challenging. Therefore, a design of a defect‐free sound insulator made by single alloys with multiple friction stir processes (FSPs) is proposed. Periodic friction stir processing can induce superlattice‐like local mechanical properties’ modifications. By experimental acoustic characterization, it is observed that FSP can introduce clear acoustic–elastic property contrast on an aluminum plate by the presence of stir zone and heat‐affected zones. In numerical simulations, the signature FSP‐induced property profile is periodically and parallelly arranged on a long aluminum plate. The transmission gap frequencies are present on the frequency spectrum with the sound propagation direction perpendicular to the FSP paths. Disorder offsets on FSP periodicity are further introduced. Anderson localization is found on a resonance frequency, which provides −11 dB sound reduction by an exponential decay. Due to the finite design length, the slight disorder can also enhance sound insulation in the periodic transmission gap frequency. With analysis and comparison with different configurations, the best performance in the models can achieve −30 dB sound insulation in the 350 mm‐long aluminum alloy plate with 14 parallel FSPs.

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  6. null (Ed.)
    The advent of 3D digital printers has led to the evolution of realistic anatomical organ shaped structures that are being currently used as experimental models for rehearsing and preparing complex surgical procedures by clinicians. However, the actual material properties are still far from being ideal, which necessitates the need to develop new materials and processing techniques for the next generation of 3D printers optimized for clinical applications. Recently, the voxelated soft matter technique has been introduced to provide a much broader range of materials and a profile much more like the actual organ that can be designed and fabricated voxel by voxel with high precision. For the practical applications of 3D voxelated materials, it is crucial to develop the novel high precision material manufacturing and characterization technique to control the mechanical properties that can be difficult using the conventional methods due to the complexity and the size of the combination of materials. Here we propose the non-destructive ultrasound effective density and bulk modulus imaging to evaluate 3D voxelated materials printed by J750 Digital Anatomy 3D Printer of Stratasys. Our method provides the design map of voxelated materials and substantially broadens the applications of 3D digital printing in the clinical research area. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
  8. We designed and characterized a 3D printed acoustic shear wave polarization rotator (PR) based on the specific nature of the fused-deposition-modeling printing process. The principle of the PR is based on rotation of the polarization axis of a shear wave due to the gradual change in orientation of the axis of anisotropy along the direction of wave propagation of a printed layered structure. The component of the shear modulus parallel to the infilled lines within each layer is significantly higher than that in the perpendicular direction. As the PR was printing, a small angle between neighboring layers was introduced, resulting in a 3D helicoidal pattern of distribution of the axes of anisotropy. The polarization of the propagating shear wave follows this pattern leading to the rotation of the polarization axis by a desirable angle. The total rotation angle can be tuned by the number of printed layers. The fabricated [Formula: see text] rotators demonstrate high performance that can be improved by changing the infill fraction settings.

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