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  1. The synthesis of a low-molecular weight, neutral, porphyrin meso-tetra(dioxan-2-yl)porphyrin of significant solubility in aqueous solution is described using 4 × 1 or 2 + 2-type approaches. The key intermediate dioxan-2-carbaldehyde is accessible in either racemic or in stereo-pure forms from commercially available starting materials in three steps, allowing also the preparation of chiral porphyrins.
  2. meso-Phenyl- and meso-pentafluorophenyl-porpholactones, their metal complexes, as well as porphyrinoids directly derived from them are useful in a number of technical and biomedical applications, and more uses are expected to be discovered. About a dozen competing and complementary pathways toward their synthesis were reported. The suitability of the methods changes with the meso-aryl group and whether the free base or metal derivatives are sought. These circumstances make it hard for anyone outside of the field of synthetic porphyrin chemistry to ascertain which pathway is the best to produce which specific derivative. We report here on what we experimentally evaluated to be the most efficient pathways to generate the six key compounds from the commercially available porphyrins, meso-tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) and meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porphyrin (TFPP): free base meso-tetraphenylporpholactone (TPL) and meso-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)porpholactone (TFPL), and their platinum(II) and zinc(II) complexes TPLPt, TFPLPt, TPLZn, and TFPLZn, respectively. Detailed procedures are provided to make these intriguing molecules more readily available for their further study.
  3. Cobalt porphyrinoids find broad use as catalysts or electrode materials. Traditional solution state cobalt insertion reactions into a free base porphyrinoid to generate the corresponding cobalt complex generally require fairly harsh conditions, involving the heating of the reactants in high-boiling solvents for extended period of times. We report here an alternative method of cobalt insertion: A solvent-free (at least for the insertion step) mechanochemical method using a planetary ball mill with Co 2 (CO) 8 as a cobalt source. The scope and limits of the reaction were investigated with respect to the porphyrinic substrate susceptible to the reaction conditions, the influences of different grinding aids, and bases added. While the mechanochemical method is, like other metal insertion methods into porphyrinoids, not universally suitable for all substrates tested, it is faster, milder, and greener for several others, when compared to established solution-based methods.