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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) hold great promise for next-generation printed logic circuitry, biocompatible integrated sensors, and neuromorphic devices. However, EGT-based complementary circuits with high voltage gain and ultralow driving voltage (<0.5 V) are currently unrealized, because achieving balanced electrical output for both the p- and n-type EGT components has not been possible with current materials. Here we report high-performance EGT complementary circuits containing p-type organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) fabricated with an ion-permeable organic semiconducting polymer (DPP-g2T) and an n-type electrical double-layer transistor (EDLT) fabricated with an ion-impermeable inorganic indium–gallium–zinc oxide (IGZO) semiconductor. Adjusting the IGZO composition enables tunable EDLT output which, for In:Ga:Zn = 10:1:1 at%, balances that of the DPP-g2T OECT. The resulting hybrid electrolyte-gated inverter (HCIN) achieves ultrahigh voltage gains (>110) under a supply voltage of only 0.7 V. Furthermore, NAND and NOR logic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates are realized, enabling not only excellent logic response with driving voltages as low as 0.2 V but also impressive mechanical flexibility down to 1-mm bending radii. Finally, the HCIN was applied in electrooculographic (EOG) signal monitoring for recording eye movement, which is critical for the development of wearable medical sensors and also interfaces for human–computer interaction; the highmore »voltage amplification of the present HCIN enables EOG signal amplification and monitoring in which a small ∼1.5 mV signal is amplified to ∼30 mV.

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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 2, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 2, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2024
  6. Abstract

    Fiber-based electronics enabling lightweight and mechanically flexible/stretchable functions are desirable for numerous e-textile/e-skin optoelectronic applications. These wearable devices require low-cost manufacturing, high reliability, multifunctionality and long-term stability. Here, we report the preparation of representative classes of 3D-inorganic nanofiber network (FN) films by a blow-spinning technique, including semiconducting indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and copper oxide, as well as conducting indium-tin oxide and copper metal. Specifically, thin-film transistors based on IGZO FN exhibit negligible performance degradation after one thousand bending cycles and exceptional room-temperature gas sensing performance. Owing to their great stretchability, these metal oxide FNs can be laminated/embedded on/into elastomers, yielding multifunctional single-sensing resistors as well as fully monolithically integrated e-skin devices. These can detect and differentiate multiple stimuli including analytes, light, strain, pressure, temperature, humidity, body movement, and respiratory functions. All of these FN-based devices exhibit excellent sensitivity, response time, and detection limits, making them promising candidates for versatile wearable electronics.

  7. Abstract

    Nanostructured molecular semiconductor films are promising Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) platforms for both fundamental and technological research. Here, we report that a nanostructured film of the small moleculeDFP-4T, consisting of a fully π-conjugated diperfluorophenyl-substituted quaterthiophene structure, demonstrates a very large Raman enhancement factor (>105) and a low limit of detection (10−9 M) for the methylene blue probe molecule. This data is comparable to those reported for the best inorganic semiconductor- and even intrinsic plasmonic metal-based SERS platforms. Photoluminescence spectroscopy and computational analysis suggest that both charge-transfer energy and effective molecular interactions, leading to a small but non-zero oscillator strength in the charge-transfer state between the organic semiconductor film and the analyte molecule, are required to achieve large SERS enhancement factors and high molecular sensitivities in these systems. Our results provide not only a considerable experimental advancement in organic SERS figure-of-merits but also a guidance for the molecular design of more sensitive SERS systems.